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Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) Fourth Edition by Christie John Geankoplis

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2.11. COMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF GASES

2.11A. Introduction and Basic Equation for Flow in Pipes

When pressure changes in gases occur which are greater than about 10%, the friction-loss equations (2.10-9) and (2.10-10) may be in error since compressible flow is occurring. Then the solution of the energy balance is more complicated because of the variation of the density or specific volume with changes in pressure. The field of compressible flow is very large and covers a very wide range of variation in geometry, pressure, velocity, and temperature. In this section we restrict our discussion to isothermal and adiabatic flow in uniform, straight pipes and do not cover flow in nozzles, which is discussed in some detail in other references (M2, P1).

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