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Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) Fourth Edition

Book Description

The comprehensive, unified, up-to-date guide to transport and separation processes

Today, chemical engineering professionals need a thorough understanding of momentum, heat, and mass transfer processes, as well as separation processes. Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, Fourth Edition offers a unified and up-to-date treatment of all these topics. Thoroughly updated to reflect the field's latest methods and applications, it covers both fundamental principles and practical applications.

Part 1 covers the essential principles underlying transport processes: momentum transfer; steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer; and mass transfer, including both unsteady-state and convective mass transfer. Part 2 covers key separation processes, including evaporation, drying, humidification, absorption, distillation, adsorption, ion exchange, extraction, leaching, crystallization, dialysis, gas membrane separation, reverse osmosis, filtration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, settling, centrifugal separation, and more. This edition's extensive updates and enhancements include:

  • A more thorough coverage of momentum, heat, and mass transport processes

  • Detailed new coverage of separation process applications

  • Greatly expanded coverage of momentum transfer, including fluidized beds and non-Newtonian fluids

  • More detailed discussions of mass transfer, absorption, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and crystallization

  • Extensive new coverage of membrane separation processes and gas-membrane theory

Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, Fourth Edition also features more than 240 example problems and over 550 homework problems reflecting the field's current methods and applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  3. Preface
  4. Transport Processes: Momentum, Heat, and Mass
    1. Introduction to Engineering Principles and Units
      1. CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSPORT PROCESSES AND SEPARATION PROCESSES (UNIT OPERATIONS)
      2. SI SYSTEM OF BASIC UNITS USED IN THIS TEXT AND OTHER SYSTEMS
      3. METHODS OF EXPRESSING TEMPERATURES AND COMPOSITIONS
      4. GAS LAWS AND VAPOR PRESSURE
      5. CONSERVATION OF MASS AND MATERIAL BALANCES
      6. ENERGY AND HEAT UNITS
      7. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND HEAT BALANCES
      8. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR INTEGRATION
      9. PROBLEMS
      10. REFERENCES
    2. Principles of Momentum Transfer and Overall Balances
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. FLUID STATICS
      3. GENERAL MOLECULAR TRANSPORT EQUATION FOR MOMENTUM, HEAT, AND MASS TRANSFER
      4. VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS
      5. TYPES OF FLUID FLOW AND REYNOLDS NUMBER
      6. OVERALL MASS BALANCE AND CONTINUITY EQUATION
      7. OVERALL ENERGY BALANCE
      8. OVERALL MOMENTUM BALANCE
      9. SHELL MOMENTUM BALANCE AND VELOCITY PROFILE IN LAMINAR FLOW
      10. DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES
      11. COMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF GASES
      12. PROBLEMS
      13. REFERENCES
    3. Principles of Momentum Transfer and Applications
      1. FLOW PAST IMMERSED OBJECTS AND PACKED AND FLUIDIZED BEDS
      2. MEASUREMENT OF FLOW OF FLUIDS
      3. PUMPS AND GAS-MOVING EQUIPMENT
      4. AGITATION AND MIXING OF FLUIDS AND POWER REQUIREMENTS
      5. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
      6. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUITY
      7. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOMENTUM TRANSFER OR MOTION
      8. USE OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUITY AND MOTION
      9. OTHER METHODS FOR SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION
      10. BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOW AND TURBULENCE
      11. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS IN MOMENTUM TRANSFER
      12. PROBLEMS
      13. REFERENCES
    4. Principles of Steady-State Heat Transfer
      1. INTRODUCTION AND MECHANISMS OF HEAT TRANSFER
      2. CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER
      3. CONDUCTION THROUGH SOLIDS IN SERIES
      4. STEADY-STATE CONDUCTION AND SHAPE FACTORS
      5. FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER INSIDE PIPES
      6. HEAT TRANSFER OUTSIDE VARIOUS GEOMETRIES IN FORCED CONVECTION
      7. NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER
      8. BOILING AND CONDENSATION
      9. HEAT EXCHANGERS
      10. INTRODUCTION TO RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER
      11. ADVANCED RADIATION HEAT-TRANSFER PRINCIPLES
      12. HEAT TRANSFER OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
      13. SPECIAL HEAT-TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS
      14. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS IN HEAT TRANSFER
      15. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR STEADY-STATE CONDUCTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
      16. PROBLEMS
      17. REFERENCES
    5. Principles of Unsteady-State Heat Transfer
      1. DERIVATION OF BASIC EQUATION
      2. SIMPLIFIED CASE FOR SYSTEMS WITH NEGLIGIBLE INTERNAL RESISTANCE
      3. UNSTEADY-STATE HEAT CONDUCTION IN VARIOUS GEOMETRIES
      4. NUMERICAL FINITE-DIFFERENCE METHODS FOR UNSTEADY-STATE CONDUCTION
      5. CHILLING AND FREEZING OF FOOD AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
      6. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF ENERGY CHANGE
      7. BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOW AND TURBULENCE IN HEAT TRANSFER
      8. PROBLEMS
      9. REFERENCES
    6. Principles of Mass Transfer
      1. INTRODUCTION TO MASS TRANSFER AND DIFFUSION
      2. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION IN GASES
      3. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION IN LIQUIDS
      4. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION IN BIOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS AND GELS
      5. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION IN SOLIDS
      6. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR STEADY-STATE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
      7. PROBLEMS
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Principles of Unsteady-State and Convective Mass Transfer
      1. UNSTEADY-STATE DIFFUSION
      2. CONVECTIVE MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS
      3. MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR VARIOUS GEOMETRIES
      4. MASS TRANSFER TO SUSPENSIONS OF SMALL PARTICLES
      5. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION PLUS CONVECTION AND CHEMICAL REACTION
      6. DIFFUSION OF GASES IN POROUS SOLIDS AND CAPILLARIES
      7. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR UNSTEADY-STATE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION
      8. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS IN MASS TRANSFER
      9. BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOW AND TURBULENCE IN MASS TRANSFER
      10. PROBLEMS
      11. REFERENCES
  5. Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations)
    1. Evaporation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. TYPES OF EVAPORATION EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION METHODS
      3. OVERALL HEAT-TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS IN EVAPORATORS
      4. CALCULATION METHODS FOR SINGLE-EFFECT EVAPORATORS
      5. CALCULATION METHODS FOR MULTIPLE-EFFECT EVAPORATORS
      6. CONDENSERS FOR EVAPORATORS
      7. EVAPORATION OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
      8. EVAPORATION USING VAPOR RECOMPRESSION
      9. PROBLEMS
      10. REFERENCES
    2. Drying of Process Materials
      1. INTRODUCTION AND METHODS OF DRYING
      2. EQUIPMENT FOR DRYING
      3. VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER AND HUMIDITY
      4. EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF MATERIALS
      5. RATE-OF-DRYING CURVES
      6. CALCULATION METHODS FOR CONSTANT-RATE DRYING PERIOD
      7. CALCULATION METHODS FOR FALLING-RATE DRYING PERIOD
      8. COMBINED CONVECTION, RADIATION, AND CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER IN CONSTANT-RATE PERIOD
      9. DRYING IN FALLING-RATE PERIOD BY DIFFUSION AND CAPILLARY FLOW
      10. EQUATIONS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF DRYERS
      11. FREEZE-DRYING OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
      12. UNSTEADY-STATE THERMAL PROCESSING AND STERILIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
      13. PROBLEMS
      14. REFERENCES
    3. Stage and Continuous Gas–Liquid Separation Processes
      1. TYPES OF SEPARATION PROCESSES AND METHODS
      2. EQUILIBRIUM RELATIONS BETWEEN PHASES
      3. SINGLE AND MULTIPLE EQUILIBRIUM CONTACT STAGES
      4. MASS TRANSFER BETWEEN PHASES
      5. CONTINUOUS HUMIDIFICATION PROCESSES
      6. ABSORPTION IN PLATE AND PACKED TOWERS
      7. ABSORPTION OF CONCENTRATED MIXTURES IN PACKED TOWERS
      8. ESTIMATION OF MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR PACKED TOWERS
      9. HEAT EFFECTS AND TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS IN ABSORPTION
      10. PROBLEMS
      11. REFERENCES
    4. Vapor–Liquid Separation Processes
      1. VAPOR–LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM RELATIONS
      2. SINGLE-STAGE EQUILIBRIUM CONTACT FOR VAPOR–LIQUID SYSTEM
      3. SIMPLE DISTILLATION METHODS
      4. DISTILLATION WITH REFLUX AND McCABE–THIELE METHOD
      5. DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION EFFICIENCIES FOR TRAY AND PACKED TOWERS
      6. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION USING ENTHALPY–CONCENTRATION METHOD
      7. DISTILLATION OF MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES
      8. PROBLEMS
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Liquid–Liquid and Fluid–Solid Separation Processes
      1. INTRODUCTION TO ADSORPTION PROCESSES
      2. BATCH ADSORPTION
      3. DESIGN OF FIXED-BED ADSORPTION COLUMNS
      4. ION-EXCHANGE PROCESSES
      5. SINGLE-STAGE LIQUID–LIQUID EXTRACTION PROCESSES
      6. TYPES OF EQUIPMENT AND DESIGN FOR LIQUID–LIQUID EXTRACTION
      7. CONTINUOUS MULTISTAGE COUNTERCURRENT EXTRACTION
      8. INTRODUCTION AND EQUIPMENT FOR LIQUID–SOLID LEACHING
      9. EQUILIBRIUM RELATIONS AND SINGLE-STAGE LEACHING
      10. COUNTERCURRENT MULTISTAGE LEACHING
      11. INTRODUCTION AND EQUIPMENT FOR CRYSTALLIZATION
      12. CRYSTALLIZATION THEORY
      13. PROBLEMS
      14. REFERENCES
    6. Membrane Separation Processes
      1. INTRODUCTION AND TYPES OF MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES
      2. LIQUID PERMEATION MEMBRANE PROCESSES OR DIALYSIS
      3. GAS PERMEATION MEMBRANE PROCESSES
      4. COMPLETE-MIXING MODEL FOR GAS SEPARATION BY MEMBRANES
      5. COMPLETE-MIXING MODEL FOR MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES
      6. CROSS-FLOW MODEL FOR GAS SEPARATION BY MEMBRANES
      7. DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS FOR COUNTERCURRENT AND COCURRENT FLOW FOR GAS SEPARATION FOR MEMBRANES
      8. DERIVATION OF FINITE-DIFFERENCE NUMERICAL METHOD FOR ASYMMETRIC MEMBRANES
      9. REVERSE-OSMOSIS MEMBRANE PROCESSES
      10. APPLICATIONS, EQUIPMENT, AND MODELS FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS
      11. ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE PROCESSES
      12. MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE PROCESSES
      13. PROBLEMS
      14. REFERENCES
    7. Mechanical–Physical Separation Processes
      1. INTRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MECHANICAL–PHYSICAL SEPARATION PROCESSES
      2. FILTRATION IN SOLID–LIQUID SEPARATION
      3. SETTLING AND SEDIMENTATION IN PARTICLE–FLUID SEPARATION
      4. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATION PROCESSES
      5. MECHANICAL SIZE REDUCTION
      6. PROBLEMS
      7. REFERENCES
    8. Fundamental Constants and Conversion Factors
      1. Gas Law Constant R
      2. Volume and Density
      3. Length
      4. Mass
      5. Standard Acceleration of Gravity
      6. Volume
      7. Force
      8. Pressure
      9. Power
      10. Heat, Energy, Work
      11. Thermal Conductivity
      12. Heat-Transfer Coefficient
      13. Viscosity
      14. Diffusivity
      15. Mass Flux and Molar Flux
      16. Heat Flux and Heat Flow
      17. Heat Capacity and Enthalpy
      18. Mass-Transfer Coefficient
      19. Temperature
    9. Physical Properties of Water
    10. Physical Properties of Inorganic and Organic Compounds
    11. Physical Properties of Foods and Biological Materials
      1. Thermal Conductivities, Densities, and Viscosities of Foods
    12. Properties of Pipes, Tubes, and Screens
    13. Notation
    14. About the Author
  6. Index