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Transmission Electron Microscopy in Micro-nanoelectronics

Book Description

Today, the availability of bright and highly coherent electron sources and sensitive detectors has radically changed the type and quality of the information which can be obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEMs are now present in large numbers not only in academia, but also in industrial research centers and fabs.

This book presents in a simple and practical way the new quantitative techniques based on TEM which have recently been invented or developed to address most of the main challenging issues scientists and process engineers have to face to develop or optimize semiconductor layers and devices. Several of these techniques are based on electron holography; others take advantage of the possibility of focusing intense beams within nanoprobes. Strain measurements and mappings, dopant activation and segregation, interfacial reactions at the nanoscale, defect identification and specimen preparation by FIB are among the topics presented in this book. After a brief presentation of the underlying theory, each technique is illustrated through examples from the lab or fab.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Contents
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Introduction
  6. Chapter 1: Active Dopant Profiling in the TEM by Off-Axis Electron Holography
    1. 1.1. Introduction
    2. 1.2. The Basics: from electron waves to phase images
    3. 1.3. Experimental electron holography
    4. 1.4. Conclusion
    5. 1.5. Bibliography
  7. Chapter 2: Dopant Distribution Quantitative Analysis Using STEM-EELS/EDX Spectroscopy Techniques
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. STEM-EELS-EDX experimental challenges for quantitative dopant distribution analysis
    3. 2.3. Experimental conditions for STEM spectroscopy impurity detection
    4. 2.4. STEM EELS-EDX quantification of dopant distribution application examples
    5. 2.5. Discussion on the characteristics of STEM-EELS/EDX and data processing
    6. 2.6. Bibliography
  8. Chapter 3: Quantitative Strain Measurement in Advanced Devices: A Comparison Between Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction and Nanobeam Diffraction
    1. 3.1. Introduction
    2. 3.2. Electron diffraction technique in TEM (CBED and NBD)
    3. 3.3. Experimental details
    4. 3.4. Results and discussion
    5. 3.5 Conclusion
    6. 3.6. Bibliography
  9. Chapter 4: Dark-Field Electron Holography for Strain Mapping
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. Setup for dark-field electron holography
    3. 4.3. Experimental requirements
    4. 4.4. Strained silicon transistors with recessed sources and drains stressors
    5. 4.5. Thin film effect
    6. 4.6. Silicon implanted with hydrogen
    7. 4.7. Strained silicon n-MOSFET
    8. 4.8. Understanding strain engineering
    9. 4.9. Strained silicon devices relying on stressor layers
    10. 4.10. 28-nm technology node MOSFETs
    11. 4.11. FinFET device
    12. 4.12. Conclusions
    13. 4.13 Bibliography
  10. Chapter 5: Magnetic Mapping Using Electron Holography
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Experimental
    3. 5.3. Hologram analysis: from the phase images to the magnetic properties
    4. 5.4. Resolutions
    5. 5.5. One example: FePd (L10) epitaxial thin film exhibiting a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)
    6. 5.6. Prospective and new developments
    7. 5.7. Conclusions
    8. 5.8. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 6: Interdiffusion and Chemical Reaction at Interfaces by TEM/EELS
    1. 6.1. Introduction
    2. 6.2. Importance of interfaces in MOSFETs
    3. 6.3. TEM and EELS
    4. 6.4. TEM/EELS and study of interdiffusion/chemical reaction at interfaces in microelectronics
    5. 6.5. HRTEM/EELS as a support to developments of RE- and TM-based HK thin films on Si and Ge
    6. 6.6. Conclusion
    7. 6.7. Bibliography
  12. Chapter 7: Characterization of Process-Induced Defects
    1. 7.1. Interfacial dislocations
    2. 7.2. Ion implantation induced defects
    3. 7.3. Conclusions
    4. 7.4. Bibliography
  13. Chapter 8: In Situ Characterization Methods in Transmission Electron Microscopy
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. In situ in a TEM
    3. 8.3. Biasing in a conventional TEM
    4. 8.4. Sample design
    5. 8.5. Conclusions
    6. 8.6. Bibliography
  14. Chapter 9: Specimen Preparation for Semiconductor Analysis
    1. 9.1. The focused ion beam tool
    2. 9.2. Ion-sample interaction
    3. 9.3. Beam currents and energies for specimen preparation
    4. 9.4. Practical specimen preparation
    5. 9.5. In situ lift-out
    6. 9.6. H-bar technique
    7. 9.7. Broad beam ion milling
    8. 9.8. Mechanical wedge polishing
    9. 9.9. Conclusion
    10. 9.10. Bibliography
  15. List of Authors
  16. Index