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Tracing the Roots of Globalization and Business Principles by Lawrence A. Beer

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Chapter 3

The Beginning of Recorded Trade

The four cradles of civilization (the Indus region of India, the Mesopotamian plane of Asia, the Nile river in northern Egypt, and the Yangtze river basin in China) created “rising empires [that] imposed a stability that occasionally resulted in greater interaction between states and peoples…the most striking example [of which] is trade.”1 Traveling on the back of the exchange initiative is where people were first brought together. Their interaction resulted in environments where “ideas were tested, challenged, and in many instances changed.”2 Trade became a conduit for the birth and advancement of civilization.

The catalyst for such was brought about by the exchange via commerce, which was orchestrated ...

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