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Toxicity of Building Materials

Book Description

From long-standing worries regarding the use of lead and asbestos to recent research into carcinogenic issues related to the use of plastics in construction, there is growing concern regarding the potential toxic effects of building materials on health. Toxicity of building materials provides an essential guide to this important problem and its solutions.

Beginning with an overview of the material types and potential health hazards presented by building materials, the book goes on to consider key plastic materials. Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds, are then explored in depth, before a review of wood preservatives and mineral fibre-based building materials. Issues related to the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning are the focus of subsequent chapters, followed by discussion of the range of heavy metals, materials prone to mould growth, and antimicrobials. Finally, Toxicity of building materials concludes by considering the potential hazards posed by waste based/recycled building materials, and the toxicity of nanoparticles.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Toxicity of building materials is an invaluable tool for all civil engineers, materials researchers, scientists and educators working in the field of building materials.

  • Provides an essential guide to the potential toxic effects of building materials on health
  • Comprehensively examines materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds
  • Later chapters focus on issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Introduction: types of potentially toxic building materials
  7. Chapter 1: The main health hazards from building materials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Radiation
    4. 1.3 Chemical carcinogens and endocrine disruptors
    5. 1.4 Nanoparticles
    6. 1.5 Conclusion and future trends
  8. Chapter 2: Plastic materials: polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
    1. Abstract:
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC – CAS number: 9002-86-2)
    4. 2.3 Building applications of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
    5. 2.4 Health and safety concerns and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
    6. 2.5 Alternatives to polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  9. Chapter 3: Plastic materials: chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) and polychloroprene rubber (CR)
    1. Abstract:
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Structure and properties of chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) and polychloroprene rubber (CR)
    4. 3.3 Alternative materials
    5. 3.4 Sources of further information
  10. Chapter 4: Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions
    1. Abstract:
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Toxicology of formaldehyde
    4. 4.3 Emission testing of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    5. 4.4 Emission models of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    6. 4.5 Determination of the characteristic emission parameters
    7. 4.6 Influence of environmental factors on emissions of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    8. 4.7 Conclusion and future trends
  11. Chapter 5: Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs): phthalates and flame retardants
    1. Abstract:
    2. 5.1 Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment
    3. 5.2 Emission of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from building materials and consumer products
    4. 5.3 Exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emitted from building materials and consumer products
  12. Chapter 6: Wood preservatives
    1. Abstract:
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Types of preservatives and their potential hazards
    4. 6.3 Potential toxic effects and ways they can be assessed
    5. 6.4 Remedial action
    6. 6.5 Conclusion and future trends
  13. Chapter 7: Mineral fibre-based building materials and their health hazards
    1. Abstract:
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Classification of asbestos and mineral fibres, their structure, microstructure and properties
    4. 7.3 Health effects of asbestos minerals
    5. 7.4 Use of asbestos in building materials
    6. 7.5 The reclamation of asbestos
    7. 7.6 The disposal of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) and recycling
    8. 7.7 Conclusion and future trends
  14. Chapter 8: Radioactive materials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)
    4. 8.3 Radon exhalation, emanation and diffusion length
    5. 8.4 Measurements of radionuclide composition
    6. 8.5 Measurement of radon exhalation
    7. 8.6 Building materials as gamma emitters
    8. 8.7 Building materials with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides
    9. 8.8 Building products with enhanced radon exhalation rate
    10. 8.9 Control of radioactivity of building materials in regulations
  15. Chapter 9: Materials that release toxic fumes during fire
    1. Abstract:
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Fire behaviour of building materials
    4. 9.3 The effects of conditions on the initiation and propagation of fire
    5. 9.4 Health effects and analysis of combustion products
    6. 9.5 Remedial actions
    7. 9.6 Future trends for reducing toxic substances in fire and related resources
    8. 9.7 Conclusion
  16. Chapter 10: Heavy metals: lead
    1. Abstract:
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 Use of lead in buildings and drinking water contamination
    4. 10.3 Toxicity of lead to humans
    5. 10.4 Assessing the risk associated with lead in drinking water
    6. 10.5 Lead pipe replacement and fittings containing lead
    7. 10.6 Corrective water treatment
    8. 10.7 Recommendations
    9. 10.8 Sources of further information and advice
  17. Chapter 11: Other heavy metals: antimony, cadmium, chromium and mercury
    1. Abstract:
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Antimony
    4. 11.3 Cadmium
    5. 11.4 Chromium
    6. 11.5 Mercury
    7. 11.6 Remedial actions
    8. 11.7 Future trends
    9. 11.8 Conclusions
  18. Chapter 12: Materials prone to mould growth
    1. Abstract:
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 Mould fungi in construction materials
    4. 12.3 Algae in construction materials
    5. 12.4 Potential toxic effects and ways they can be monitored
    6. 12.5 Remedial action and future trends
    7. 12.6 Sources of further information and advice
  19. Chapter 13: Antimicrobial treatment and efficacy
    1. Abstract:
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Research programs
    4. 13.3 Static microbial test chamber
    5. 13.4 Dynamic microbial test chamber
    6. 13.5 Effects of moisture, relative humidity (RH) and dust
    7. 13.6 Duct cleaning effectiveness on microbial growth
    8. 13.7 Evaluation of antimicrobial treatments as control technologies
    9. 13.8 Antimicrobial product acknowledgment
    10. 13.9 Conclusions
    11. 13.10 Future trends
    12. 13.11 Sources of further information
  20. Chapter 14: Potential hazards from waste based/recycled building materials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 14.1 Introduction
    3. 14.2 Main types of building materials containing wastes
    4. 14.3 Waste properties and potential hazards
    5. 14.4 Scenarios of pollutant emission from construction materials
    6. 14.5 Potential hazard assessment for construction materials in their service life
    7. 14.6 Conclusion and future trends
  21. Chapter 15: Toxicity of nanoparticles
    1. Abstract:
    2. 15.1 Introduction to nanoparticle and nanomaterial toxicity
    3. 15.2 Morphology, classification, and properties of nanomaterials
    4. 15.3 Types of building materials incorporating nanomaterials
    5. 15.4 The uptake of nanoparticles and their toxicity
    6. 15.5 Diseases associated with nanoparticle exposure
    7. 15.6 Detection of occupational nanoparticles and remedial action
    8. 15.7 Sources of further information and advice
    9. 15.8 Conclusion and future trends
  22. Index