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Toxicity and Waste Management Using Bioremediation

Book Description

Bioremediation is an emerging field of environmental research. The objective of a bioremediation process is to immobilize contaminants (reactants) or to transform them into chemical products that do not pose a risk to human health and the environment. Toxicity and Waste Management Using Bioremediation provides relevant theoretical and practical frameworks and the latest empircal research findings on the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater using bioorganisms. Focusing on effective waste treatment methodologies and management strategies that lead to improved human and environmental health, this timely publication is ideal for use by environmenal scientists, biologists, policy makers, graduate students, and scholars in the fields of environmental science, chemistry, and biology.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
    1. THE CHALLENGES
    2. SEARCHING FOR A SOLUTION
    3. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    4. REFERENCES
  8. Acknowledgment
  9. Chapter 1: Heavy Metal Pollution
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DEFINITIONS
    4. SOURCES OF HEAVY METALS
    5. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN ENVIRONMENT
    6. TOXICOLOGY OF METALS
    7. MITIGATION OF HEAVY METALS
    8. RECOMMENDATIONS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Chapter 2: Heavy Metal Pollution and its Management
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. BACKGROUND
    3. 2. WASTE AND ITS TYPE
    4. 3. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS AND SOIL POLLUTION
    5. 4. HEAVY METALS
    6. 5. BIOREMEDIATION
    7. 6. REQUIREMENTS OF BIOREMEDIATION
    8. 7. METAL TOXICITY AND MANAGEMENT
    9. 8. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
    10. 9. BIOSORPTION
    11. 10. CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
  11. Chapter 3: Biosorption of Dye Molecules
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SYNTHETIC DYES AND RELATED ISSUES
    4. DIFFERENT METHODS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT
    5. TECHNOLOGIES CURRENTLY IN USE FOR REMOVAL OF COLOUR FROM EFFLUENTS
    6. BIOSORPTION OF DYES
    7. PREPARATION OF BIOSORBENT
    8. BATCH KINETIC STUDIES OF BIOSORPTION
    9. CONTINUOUS BIOSORPTION
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
  12. Chapter 4: Microbial Response against Metal Toxicity
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF METAL TOXICITY
    4. MICROBIAL RESPONSE: ACCLIMATIZATION, ADAPTATION AND RESISTANCE
    5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTE
  13. Chapter 5: Application of Genomics and Proteomics in Bioremediation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. GENOMICS IN BIOREMEDIATION
    4. 3. PROTEOMICS IN BIOREMEDIATION
    5. 4. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
  14. Chapter 6: Genetically Engineered Microorganisms for Bioremediation Processes
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. BACTERIAL-RECOMBINANT DNA USED IN GEMS
    4. 3. TRANSGENICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING
    5. 4. GENETICALLY MODIFIED MICROBIAL STRAIN FOR REMEDIATION
    6. 5. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF GEMS IN BIO-REMEDIATION
    7. 6. SUICIDAL GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISM
    8. 7. PLASMID ADDICTION SYSTEM
    9. 8. TECHNIQUES
    10. 9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. 10. CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
  15. Chapter 7: Novel Bioremediation Methods in Waste Management
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOREMEDIATION
    4. 3. BIOREMEDIATION STRATEGIES
    5. 4. NOVEL BIOREMEDIATION METHODS
    6. 5. BIOREMEDIATION BY GENETIC ENGINEERING
    7. 6. BIOREMEDIATION USING EARTHWORMS (VERMICULTURE)
    8. 7. DUCKWEEDS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION
    9. 8. MUSHROOMS AND BIOREMEDIATION
    10. 9. BIOREMEDIATION OF PLASTIC AND RUBBER BY ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI
    11. 10. BIOREMEDIATION THROUGH MICROBES: GROWTH PARAMETERS
    12. 11. PROS AND CONS OF BIOREMEDIATION
    13. 12. CONCLUSION
    14. REFERENCES
  16. Chapter 8: Effective Management of Agro-Industrial Residues as Composting in Mushroom Industry and Utilization of Spent Mushroom Substrate for Bioremediation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. CURRENT STATUS OF MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
    4. 3. PRESENT WORLDWIDE SCENARIO OF SPENT MUSHROOM SUBSTRATE
    5. 4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SPENT MUSHROOM SUBSTRATE (SMS) OF DIFFERENT MUSHROOMS
    6. 5. MICROFLORA OF SPENT MUSHROOM SUBSTRATE
    7. 6. BIOREMEDIATION OF POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS BY SPENT MUSHROOM SUBSTRATE
    8. 7. COCKTAIL OF LIGNINOLYTIC ENZYMES GENERATED FROM SPENT MUSHROOM SUBSTARTE
    9. 8. ROLE OF SPENT MUSHROOM SUBSTRATE IN DYES DECOLOURISATION
    10. 9. BIOREMEDIATION OF FUNGICIDE/INSECTICIDES
    11. 10. DISCUSSION
    12. 11. CONCLUSION
    13. REFERENCES
  17. Chapter 9: Bioremediation Approaches for Recalcitrant Pollutants
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. BACKGROUND
    4. 3. POTENTIALITY, SUCCESSES AND LIMITATION OF BIOREMEDIATION AT A GLANCE
    5. 4. WHY MICROBES?
    6. 5. PHYTOREMEDIATION
    7. 6. DEVELOPMENTS AND SUCCESSES IN BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES
    8. 7. HEAVY METAL TOXICITY REMOVAL BY MICROBES
    9. 8. DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYTOREMEDIATION
    10. 9. WASTEWATERS CAN BE BIOREMEDIATED IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS
    11. 10. LIMITATIONS OF BIOREMEDIATION: A GRIM FACE
    12. 11. FUTURE RESEARCH TOWARDS SOLUTION TO THE LIMITATIONS
    13. 12. CONCLUSION
    14. REFERENCES
  18. Chapter 10: Biodegradation of Phenol
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CONCLUSION
    4. REFERENCES
  19. Chapter 11: Phyto-Remediation Using Plants to Clean Up Soils
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. SIGNIFICANCE OF PHYTOREMEDIATION (VISHNOI ET AL., 2008)
    4. 3. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PLANTS
    5. 4. TECHNIQUES OF PHYTOREMEDIATION
    6. 5. PHYTOEXTRACTIONPHYTOACCUMULATION/PHYTOABSORPTION
    7. 6. BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
    8. 7. RHIZOFILTRATION/ PHYTOFILTRATION/ RHIZODEGRADATION
    9. 8. PHYTOSTABILIZATION/ PHYTORESTORATION/PHYTOSEQUESTRATION
    10. 9. PHYTOVOLATILIZATION
    11. 10. PHYTODEGRADATION / PHYTOTRANSFORMATION
    12. 11. RHIZODEGRADATION/ PHYTOSTIMULATION
    13. 12. CONCLUSION
    14. REFERENCES
  20. Chapter 12: A Prospective Study on Emerging Role of Phytoremediation by Endophytic Microorganisms
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CONCLUSION
    4. REFERENCES
  21. Chapter 13: Advances in Bioremediation for Removal of Toxic Dye from Different Streams of Wastewater
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. BACKGROUND
    4. 3. BACTERIAL DECOLOURISATION AND DEGRADATION MECHANISMS
    5. 4. IMMOBILIZATION OF BACTERIAL CELLS
    6. 5. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURES
    7. 6. FUTURE SCOPE
    8. 7. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  22. Chapter 14: Decolorization of Direct Blue
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CONCLUSION
    4. REFERENCES
  23. Chapter 15: Fighting Ecomafias
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS INFILTRATIONS IN THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
    4. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
    5. 4. TOWARDS A HYPER-EXPANDED NETWORK: ISSUES AND CONCERNS
    6. 5. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  24. Chapter 16: Effective Waste Water Treatment and its Management
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. VARIOUS TREATMENT PROCEDURES
    4. PRIMARY TREATMENT
    5. SECONDARY TREATMENT
    6. TERTIARY TREATMENT
    7. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
    8. STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
  25. Compilation of References
  26. About the Contributors