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Tourism Management, 5th Edition

Book Description

In 2013 the World Tourism Organization reported that more than one billion international overnight tourist trips occurred globally during the previous year. Aside from the impressive number, the achievement was even more remarkable given the lingering effects of the global financial crisis. It is proof indeed of the tourism sector's great resilience, as well as the continuing explosive growth of mass tourism markets in China and other parts of Asia.

In 2013 the World Tourism Organization reported that more than one billion international overnight tourist trips occurred globally during the previous year. Aside from the impressive number, the achievement was even more remarkable given the lingering effects of the global financial crisis. It is proof indeed of the tourism sector's great resilience, as well as the continuing explosive growth of mass tourism markets in China and other parts of Asia.

Tourism Management, 5th Edition explains why sophisticated and adaptive management is required to realise the tourism sector's full potential as a positive and sustainable economic, ecological, social and cultural force.

This new 5th Edition continues to equip aspiring managers and planners with the broad cutting-edge knowledge and mindset conducive to resilience and innovation in the tourism sector. It emphasises the paramount importance of sustainability in terms of the 'triple bottom line' by concurrently acknowledging the legitimacy of economic, environmental and sociocultural viability. Such holistic thinking needs to be deeply embedded in the deliberations of all tourism planners and managers.

Special features in each chapter also continue to highlight how innovative technologies can be utilised in the interests of resilient and sustainable tourism. Social media, for example, has attained a degree of importance as a democratic marketing vehicle that could not have been foreseen even a few short years ago.

Tourism Management, 5th Edition builds on its long-held reputation for providing students with a strong pedagogical application of the economic, sociocultural and environment impacts of tourism. The title's twelve chapters constitute a logical introduction to the tourism sector aligning with a typical university semester. It prepares students with exposure to the latest industry and research developments, in turn building their capacity as the successful tourism managers of the future.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. About the authors
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgements
  5. Features at a glance
  6. 1 Introduction to tourism management
    1. Introduction
    2. The phenomenon of tourism
    3. Definition of tourism
      1. The importance of tourism
    4. Tourism as an academic field of study
      1. Obstacles to development
      2. Current status
      3. A sequence of tourism platforms
      4. Universities and VET providers
    5. Characteristics, outline and structure
      1. Characteristics
      2. Chapter outline
      3. Chapter structure
    6. Chapter review
    7. Summary of key terms
    8. Questions
    9. Exercises
    10. Further reading
    11. References
  7. 2 The tourism system
    1. Introduction
    2. A systems approach to tourism
      1. The basic whole tourism system
    3. The tourist
      1. Spatial component
      2. Temporal component
      3. Travel purpose
      4. Major tourist categories
      5. Data problems
    4. Origin region
      1. Origin community
      2. Origin government
    5. Transit region
      1. Management implications of transit regions
      2. Effects of technology
    6. Destination region
      1. Destination communities
      2. Destination governments
    7. The tourism industry
    8. Chapter review
    9. Summary of key terms
    10. Questions
    11. Exercises
    12. Further reading
    13. Case study
    14. References
  8. 3 The evolution and growth of tourism
    1. Introduction
    2. Premodern tourism
      1. Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
      2. China
      3. Ancient Greece and Rome
      4. The Dark Ages and Middle Ages
    3. Early modern tourism (1500–1950)
      1. The Grand Tour
      2. Spa resorts
      3. Seaside resorts
      4. Thomas Cook
      5. The post-Cook period (1880–1950)
    4. Contemporary tourism (1950 onwards)
      1. The world’s biggest industry?
    5. Factors associated with increased tourism demand
      1. Economic factors
      2. Social factors
      3. Demographic factors
      4. Transportation technology factors
      5. Political factors
    6. Australian tourism participation
    7. Future growth prospects
    8. Chapter review
    9. Summary of key terms
    10. Questions
    11. Exercises
    12. Further reading
    13. Case study
    14. References
  9. 4 Destinations
    1. Introduction
    2. Global destination patterns: Advanced and emerging economies
      1. Tourism market share and growth
      2. Reasons for the proliferation of the emerging economies as destinations
    3. Pull factors influencing a destination
      1. Geographical proximity to markets
      2. Accessibility to markets
      3. Availability of services
      4. Availability of attractions
      5. Cultural and spiritual links
      6. Affordability
      7. Peace, stability and safety
      8. Positive market image
      9. Pro-tourism policies
    4. Regional destination patterns
      1. Europe
      2. Asia–Pacific
      3. The Americas
      4. The Middle East
      5. Africa
      6. Australia
    5. Internal destination patterns
      1. The Australian pattern
    6. Chapter review
    7. Summary of key terms
    8. Questions
    9. Exercises
    10. Further reading
    11. Case study
    12. References
  10. 5 The tourism product
    1. Introduction
    2. Tourist attractions
      1. Natural sites
      2. Natural events
      3. Cultural sites
      4. Attraction attributes
    3. The tourism industry
      1. Travel agencies
      2. Transportation
      3. Accommodation
      4. Tour operators
      5. Merchandise
      6. Industry structure
    4. Chapter review
    5. Summary of key terms
    6. Questions
    7. Exercises
    8. Further reading
    9. Case study
    10. References
  11. 6 Tourist markets
    1. Introduction
    2. Tourist market trends
      1. The democratisation of travel
      2. The emergence of simple market segmentation and multilevel segmentation
      3. Niche markets and ’markets of one’
    3. The destination selection process
      1. Multiple decision makers
    4. Tourist market segmentation
      1. Geographic segmentation
      2. Sociodemographic segmentation
      3. Psychographic segmentation
      4. Behavioural segmentation
    5. Chapter review
    6. Summary of key terms
    7. Questions
    8. Exercises
    9. Further reading
    10. Case study
    11. References
  12. 7 Tourism marketing
    1. Introduction
    2. The nature of marketing
      1. Definition of marketing
    3. Services marketing
      1. Intangibility
      2. Inseparability
      3. Variability
      4. Perishability
    4. Managing supply and demand
      1. Daily variations in demand
      2. Weekly variations in demand
      3. Seasonal variations in demand
      4. Long-term variations in demand
      5. Supply/demand matching strategies
    5. Market failure
      1. Destination tourism organisations
    6. Strategic tourism marketing
      1. SWOT analysis and objectives
      2. Objectives
      3. Control/evaluation
    7. Marketing mix
      1. Place
      2. Product
      3. People
      4. Price
      5. Packaging
      6. Programming
      7. Promotion
      8. Partnerships
    8. Chapter review
    9. Summary of key terms
    10. Questions
    11. Exercises
    12. Further reading
    13. Case study
    14. References
  13. 8 Economic impacts of tourism
    1. Introduction
    2. Economic benefits
      1. Direct revenue
      2. Indirect revenue
      3. Economic integration and diversification
      4. Employment (direct and indirect)
      5. Regional development
      6. Formal and informal sectors
    3. Economic costs
      1. Direct financial costs
      2. Indirect financial costs
      3. Fluctuations in intake
      4. Competition with other sectors
      5. Employment problems
    4. Chapter review
    5. Summary of key terms
    6. Questions
    7. Exercises
    8. Further reading
    9. Case study
    10. References
  14. 9 Sociocultural and environmental impacts of tourism
    1. Introduction
    2. Sociocultural benefits
      1. Promotion of cross-cultural understanding
      2. Incentive to preserve culture and heritage
      3. Promoting social wellbeing and stability
    3. Sociocultural costs
      1. Commodification
      2. The demonstration effect revisited
      3. The relationship between tourism and crime
      4. Factors contributing to the increased likelihood of sociocultural costs
      5. Resident reactions
    4. Environmental benefits
    5. Environmental costs
      1. Environmental impact sequence
      2. Ecological footprinting
      3. Management implications of sociocultural and environmental impacts
    6. Chapter review
    7. Summary of key terms
    8. Questions
    9. Exercises
    10. Further reading
    11. Case study
    12. References
  15. 10 Destination development
    1. Introduction
    2. Destination cycle
      1. The Butler sequence
      2. Application and critique of the Butler sequence
    3. Factors that change the destination cycle
      1. Internal-intentional actions
      2. External-unintentional actions
      3. Internal-unintentional actions
      4. External-intentional actions
    4. National tourism development
      1. Spatial diffusion
      2. Effects of hierarchical diffusion
      3. Effects of contagious diffusion
      4. Model of national tourism development
    5. Chapter review
    6. Summary of key terms
    7. Questions
    8. Exercises
    9. Further reading
    10. Case study
    11. References
  16. 11 Sustainable tourism
    1. Introduction
    2. A paradigm shift?
      1. Dominant Western environmental paradigm
      2. Towards a green paradigm
    3. Sustainable tourism
      1. Indicators
    4. Sustainability and mass tourism
      1. Reasons for adoption
      2. Practices
      3. Quality control
    5. Sustainability and small-scale tourism
      1. Alternative tourism
      2. Manifestations
      3. Critique of alternative tourism
    6. Ecotourism
      1. Soft and hard ecotourism
      2. Magnitude
      3. Location
    7. Destination sustainability
      1. Extending the Butler sequence
    8. Chapter review
    9. Summary of key terms
    10. Questions
    11. Exercises
    12. Further reading
    13. Case study
    14. References
  17. 12 Tourism research
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of research
      1. Basic research
      2. Applied research
      3. Cross-sectional research
      4. Longitudinal
      5. Longitudinal research
      6. Qualitative research
      7. Quantitative research
      8. Primary research
      9. Secondary research
    3. The research process
      1. Problem recognition
      2. Question formulation
      3. Identification of research methodology or methods
      4. Data collection
      5. Data analysis
      6. Data presentation
      7. Data interpretation
    4. Chapter review
    5. Summary of key terms
    6. Questions
    7. Exercises
    8. Further reading
    9. Case study
    10. References
  18. Appendix 1
  19. Appendix 2
  20. Appendix 3
  21. Glossary
  22. Index
  23. Copyright Page