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Three-dimensional Integrated Circuit Design by Eby G. Friedman, Vasilis F. Pavlidis

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Chapter 6. Thermal Management Techniques

The primary advantage of three-dimensional integration, significantly greater packing density, is also the greatest threat to this emerging technology — aggressive thermal gradients among the planes within a 3-D IC. Thermal problems, however, are not unique to vertical integration. Due to scaling, elevated temperatures and hot spots within traditional 2-D circuits can greatly decrease the maximum achievable speed and affect the reliability of a circuit [189]. In addition, projected peak temperatures greatly deviate from International Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predictions of the maximum operating temperature in next-generation ICs. [12] Thermal awareness has therefore become another primary design ...

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