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Thin Film Growth

Book Description

Thin film technology is used in many applications such as microelectronics, optics, hard and corrosion resistant coatings and micromechanics, and thin films form a uniquely versatile material base for the development of novel technologies within these industries. Thin film growth provides an important and up-to-date review of the theory and deposition techniques used in the formation of thin films.

Part one focuses on the theory of thin film growth, with chapters covering nucleation and growth processes in thin films, phase-field modelling of thin film growth and surface roughness evolution. Part two covers some of the techniques used for thin film growth, including oblique angle deposition, reactive magnetron sputtering and epitaxial growth of graphene films on single crystal metal surfaces. This section also includes chapters on the properties of thin films, covering topics such as substrate plasticity and buckling of thin films, polarity control, nanostructure growth dynamics and network behaviour in thin films.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Thin film growth is an essential reference for engineers in electronics, energy materials and mechanical engineering, as well as those with an academic research interest in the topic.

  • Provides an important and up-to-date review of the theory and deposition techniques used in the formation of thin films
  • Focusses on the theory and modelling of thin film growth, techniques and mechanisms used for thin film growth and properties of thin films
  • An essential reference for engineers in electronics, energy materials and mechanical engineering

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Praface
  7. Part I: Theory of thin film growth
    1. Chapter 1: Measuring nucleation and growth processes in thin films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Basic theory of epitaxial growth
      4. 1.3 Observation method of atomic steps
      5. 1.4 Two-dimensional-island nucleation and step-flow growth modes
      6. 1.5 The motion of atomic steps on a growing and evaporating Si(111) surface
      7. 1.6 Morphological instability of atomic steps
      8. 1.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 1.9 Appendix
    2. Chapter 2: Quantum electronic stability of atomically uniform films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Electronic growth
      4. 2.3 Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy
      5. 2.4 Atomically uniform films
      6. 2.5 Quantum thermal stability of thin films
      7. 2.6 General principles of film stability and nanostructure development
      8. 2.7 Beyond the particle-in-a-box
      9. 2.8 Future trends
      10. 2.9 Acknowledgments
    3. Chapter 3: Phase-field modeling of thin film growth
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Modeling
      4. 3.3 Numerical results
      5. 3.4 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 4: Analysing surface roughness evolution in thin films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Roughness during homo-epitaxial growth
      4. 4.3 Roughness during hetero- or non-epitaxial growth
      5. 4.4 Future trends
    5. Chapter 5: Modelling thin film deposition processes based on real-time observation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction: time resolved surface science
      3. 5.2 Basics of growth and relevant length of and timescales for in-situ observation of film deposition
      4. 5.3 Experimental techniques for real-time and in-situ studies
      5. 5.4 Experimental case studies
      6. 5.5 Future trends
      7. 5.6 Sources of further information and advice
  8. Part II: Techniques of thin film growth
    1. Chapter 6: Silicon nanostructured films grown on templated surfaces by oblique angle deposition
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Preparation of templated surface for oblique angle deposition
      4. 6.3 Fan-out on templated surface with normal incident flux
      5. 6.4 Fan-out growth on templated surfaces with oblique angle incident flux
      6. 6.5 Control of fan-out growth with substrate rotations
      7. 6.6 Applications and future trends
    2. Chapter 7: Phase transitions in colloidal crystal thin films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Experimental tools
      4. 7.3 Description of colloidal crystal phases: historical survey
      5. 7.4 Phase transition sequence in colloidal crystal thin films
      6. 7.5 Conclusions and future trends
      7. 7.6 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 8: Thin film growth for thermally unstable noble-metal nitrides by reactive magnetron sputtering
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Deposition of stoichiometric Cu3N
      4. 8.3 Nitrogen re-emission
      5. 8.4 Doping of Cu3N by co-sputtering
      6. 8.5 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 9: Growth of graphene layers for thin films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes
      4. 9.3 Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes
      5. 9.4 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 10: Epitaxial growth of graphene thin films on single crystal metal surfaces
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Structure of graphene on metals
      4. 10.3 Growth of graphene on a metal
      5. 10.4 Future trends
      6. 10.5 Sources of further information and advice
      7. 10.6 Acknowledgements
    6. Chapter 11: Electronic properties and adsorption behaviour of thin films with polar character
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction to oxide polarity
      3. 11.2 Polar oxide films
      4. 11.3 Measuring polarity of thin oxide films
      5. 11.4 Adsorption properties of polar films
      6. 11.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 11.7 Acknowledgements
      8. 11.6 Sources of further information and advice
    7. Chapter 12: Polarity controlled epitaxy of III-nitrides and ZnO by molecular beam epitaxy
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Lattice polarity and detection methods
      4. 12.3 Polarity issues at heteroepitaxy and homoepitaxy
      5. 12.4 Polarity controlled epitaxy of GaN and AlN
      6. 12.5 Polarity controlled epitaxy of InN
      7. 12.6 Polarity controlled epitaxy of ZnO
      8. 12.7 Conclusions
    8. Chapter 13: Understanding substrate plasticity and buckling of thin films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Experimental observations
      4. 13.3 Modelling
      5. 13.4 Discussion
      6. 13.5 Conclusions
    9. Chapter 14: Controlled buckling of thin films on compliant substrates for stretchable electronics
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Mechanics of one-dimensional non-coplanar mesh design
      4. 14.3 Mechanics of two-dimensional non-coplanar mesh design
      5. 14.4 Conclusions
    10. Chapter 15: The electrocaloric effect (ECE) in ferroelectric polymer films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Thermodynamic considerations on materials with large electrocaloric effect (ECE)
      4. 15.3 Previous investigations on electrocaloric effect (ECE) in polar materials
      5. 15.4 Large electrocaloric effect (ECE) in ferroelectric polymer films
      6. 15.5 Future trends
      7. 15.6 Conclusion
      8. 15.7 Acknowledgements
    11. Chapter 16: Network behavior in thin films and nanostructure growth dynamics
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Origins of network behavior during thin film growth
      4. 16.3 Monte Carlo simulations
      5. 16.4 Results and discussion
      6. 16.5 Conclusions
  9. Index