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Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Interfaces

Book Description

An accessible yet rigorous discussion of the thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces, bridging the gap between textbooks and advanced literature by delivering a comprehensive guide without an overwhelming amount of mathematics. The book begins with a review of the relevant aspects of the thermodynamics of bulk systems, followed by a description of the thermodynamic variables for surfaces and interfaces. Important surface phenomena are detailed, including wetting, crystalline systems (including grain boundaries), interfaces between different phases, curved interfaces (capillarity), adsorption phenomena and adhesion of surface layers. The later chapters also feature case studies to illustrate real-world applications. Each chapter includes a set of study problems to reinforce the reader's understanding of important concepts. Ideal as an auxiliary text for students and a self-study guide for industry practitioners and academic researchers working across a broad range of materials.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Half title page
  3. Cover Description
  4. Title page
  5. Copyright page
  6. Dedication
  7. Contents
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. 1 Summary of basic thermodynamic concepts
    1. 1.1 Basic thermodynamics
      1. 1.1.1 Extensive and molar properties of a thermodynamic system
      2. 1.1.2 The first law
      3. 1.1.3 The second law
      4. 1.1.4 The third law
      5. 1.1.5 Combined first and second laws
    2. 1.2 Multicomponent systems – solution thermodynamics
      1. 1.2.1 The ideal-solution model
      2. 1.2.2 Non-ideal solutions
    3. 1.3 Multiphase equilibria
      1. 1.3.1 Unary systems
      2. 1.3.2 Multicomponent systems
    4. 1.4 Chemical reactions
      1. 1.4.1 Chemical reactions involving gases
    5. 1.5 Summary
    6. 1.6 References
    7. 1.7 Study problems
    8. 1.8 Selected thermodynamic data references
  11. 2 Introduction to surface quantities
    1. 2.1 Description of a surface/interface
    2. 2.2 Thermodynamic properties
      1. 2.2.1 Creation of a surface
      2. 2.2.2 Extension of a surface
      3. 2.2.3 Relations among surface quantities
      4. 2.2.4 Relations between γ and σ
      5. 2.2.5 Determination of surface parameters
      6. 2.2.6 Description of surface contributions to the thermodynamic description of material systems
    3. 2.3 Summary
    4. 2.4 References
    5. 2.5 Study problems
  12. 3 Equilibrium at intersections of surfaces: wetting
    1. 3.1 Non-reactive versus reactive wetting
    2. 3.2 Non-reactive wetting
      1. 3.2.1 The contact angle on an ideal solid surface (Young's equation)
      2. 3.2.2 Work of adhesion
      3. 3.2.3 Capillary rise
      4. 3.2.4 Small droplets
      5. 3.2.5 Non-ideal surfaces
    3. 3.3 Reactive wetting
    4. 3.4 Selected values of interfacial energies
    5. 3.5 Summary
    6. 3.6 References
    7. 3.7 Study problems
  13. 4 Surfaces of crystalline solids
    1. 4.1 Surface energy for crystalline solids
      1. 4.1.1 Equilibrium crystal shape
    2. 4.2 Internal boundaries
      1. 4.2.1 Types of grain boundaries
      2. 4.2.2 Intersections of grain boundaries with free surfaces
      3. 4.2.3 Intersections of grain boundaries
    3. 4.3 Faceting
    4. 4.4 Measurement of surface and grain-boundary energies
      1. 4.4.1 The zero-creep technique
      2. 4.4.2 The multiphase-equilibrium (MPE) technique
      3. 4.4.3 Selected values of high-angle grain-boundary energies
    5. 4.5 Summary
    6. 4.6 References
    7. 4.7 Study problems
  14. 5 Interphase interfaces
    1. 5.1 Interface classifications
      1. 5.1.1 Coherent interfaces
      2. 5.1.2 Semicoherent interfaces
      3. 5.1.3 Incoherent interfaces
      4. 5.1.4 Interface mobility
    2. 5.2 Interaction of second phases with grain boundaries
    3. 5.3 Thin-film formation
      1. 5.3.1 Growth of thin oxide films
      2. 5.3.2 Formation of metal films by evaporation
    4. 5.4 Summary
    5. 5.5 References
    6. 5.6 Study problems
  15. 6 Curved surfaces
    1. 6.1 Derivation of the Laplace equation
      1. 6.1.1 Techniques that use the Laplace equation to measure surface energy
    2. 6.2 The effect of curvature on the chemical potential
      1. 6.2.1 Grain growth
    3. 6.3 Phase equilibria in one-component systems
      1. 6.3.1 The relation between μS and μL (or μV)
      2. 6.3.2 The vapor pressure of a pure liquid
      3. 6.3.3 The vapor pressure of an isotropic solid particle
      4. 6.3.4 The melting point of a one-component solid
    4. 6.4 Nucleation
      1. 6.4.1 Homogeneous nucleation
      2. 6.4.2 Heterogeneous nucleation
    5. 6.5 Phase equilibria in multicomponent systems
      1. 6.5.1 The vapor pressure of a component over a multicomponent liquid
      2. 6.5.2 The effect of particle size on solubility
      3. 6.5.3 Precipitate coarsening
    6. 6.6 Summary
    7. 6.7 References
    8. 6.8 Study problems
  16. 7 Adsorption
    1. 7.1 The Gibbs adsorption equation
      1. 7.1.1 Applications of the Gibbs adsorption equation
    2. 7.2 The Langmuir adsorption equation
    3. 7.3 The effects of adsorption on the fracture of solids
      1. 7.3.1 The effect of water vapor on the fracture of ceramics
      2. 7.3.2 The effect of grain-boundary segregation on the fracture of metals
    4. 7.4 Summary
    5. 7.5 References
    6. 7.6 Study problem
  17. 8 Adhesion
    1. 8.1 The origin of stresses in multilayer systems
      1. 8.1.1 Formation stresses
      2. 8.1.2 Thermal stresses
      3. 8.1.3 Applied stress
    2. 8.2 Response to stress
      1. 8.2.1 The relation of the fracture energy and the work of adhesion
      2. 8.2.2 The effect of adsorption on the work of adhesion and fracture energy.
    3. 8.3 Case study – protective layers on superalloys in gas turbines
      1. 8.3.1 Formation and adhesion of protective oxide layers
      2. 8.3.2 Multilayer systems – thermal barrier coatings
    4. 8.4 Summary
    5. 8.5 References
    6. 8.6 Study problems
  18. Index