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Theoretical and Computational Models of Word Learning

Book Description

The process of learning words and languages may seem like an instinctual trait, inherent to nearly all humans from a young age. However, a vast range of complex research and information exists in detailing the complexities of the process of word learning. Theoretical and Computational Models of Word Learning: Trends in Psychology and Artificial Intelligence strives to combine cross-disciplinary research into one comprehensive volume to help readers gain a fuller understanding of the developmental processes and influences that makeup the progression of word learning. Blending together developmental psychology and artificial intelligence, this publication is intended for researchers, practitioners, and educators who are interested in language learning and its development as well as computational models formed from these specific areas of research.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
    1. THE MISSING PIECE IN WORD LEARNING
    2. OBJECTIVE OF THE BOOK
    3. WHAT LEAD TO THIS BOOK?
    4. THE ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS
    5. TARGET AUDIENCE
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. Section 1: The Puzzle: Broad Theoretical Approaches to Word Learning
    1. Chapter 1: A Dynamic Neural Field Model of Word Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A CONCEPTUAL PROPOSAL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHAPE BIAS
      4. LIMITATIONS OF PRIOR FORMAL MODELS
      5. A CASCADING PROCESS
      6. TOWARD A MORE COMPLETE MODEL
      7. A DYNAMIC NEURAL FIELD MODEL OF MULTIPLE WORD LEARNING BEHAVIORS
      8. INPUTS TO THE MODEL
      9. WORD COMPREHENSION
      10. WORD PRODUCTION
      11. YES/NO RESPONSE SYSTEM
      12. FORCED-CHOICE NNG
      13. REFERENT SELECTION TASK
      14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TASKS
      15. SIMULATIONS
      16. SUMMARY
      17. GENERALIZATION FROM MULTIPLE EXEMPLARS
      18. TOWARD A MORE COMPLETE REPRESENTATION OF OBJECTS
      19. SIMULATION OF THE SHAPE BIAS
      20. CREATING DEVELOPMENT VIA LONG-TERM MEMORY DYNAMICS
      21. BINDING WORDS THROUGH SPACE
      22. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 2: Timing Matters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: WHAT ARE SENSITIVE PERIODS?
      4. THE MULCH ACCOUNT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SENSITIVE PERIODS
      5. SENSITIVE PERIOD FOR INVARIANT TEMPORAL SYNCHRONY IN WORD-REFERENT PAIRINGS: EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPOSURE
      6. SENSITIVE PERIOD FOR AUDITORY VERSUS VISUAL DOMINANCE: EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPOSURE
      7. MULCH REVISITED: INFANTS’ CHANGING SENSITIVITY TO PERCEPTUAL GATEWAYS
      8. SENSITIVITY TO SPACE AND WORD-REFERENT RELATIONS
      9. SENSITIVITY TO JOINT ENGAGEMENT
      10. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: Pushing the Envelope of Associative Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MODEL
      5. SIMULATION 1: THE NECESSITY OF INTERNAL REPRESENTATIONS AND DYNAMIC COMPETITION
      6. SIMULATION 2: THE PACE OF LEARNING
      7. SIMULATION 3: THE POWER OF LOW-UNCERTAINTY?
      8. SIMULATION 4: VISUAL CATEGORIZATION LEARNING AND WORD LEARNING
      9. GENERAL DISCUSSION
    4. Chapter 4: How Experiences with Words Supply All the Tools in the Toddler’s Word-Learning Toolbox
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT ARE THE LEARNING MECHANISMS REQUIRED FOR THE EXPERIENCE-DRIVEN APPROACH?
      4. ROUTE 1: ATTENTION TO RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NEW WORDS AND THEIR REFERENTS
      5. ROUTE 2: ATTENTION TO RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CUES, KNOWN WORDS, AND THEIR REFERENTS
      6. ROUTE 3: ATTENTION TO HOW KNOWN WORDS ARE USED
      7. PREDICTIONS OF THE EXPERIENCE-DRIVEN MODEL OF THE EVOLUTION OF WORD-LEARNING STRATEGIES
    5. Chapter 5: Learning Words from Experience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT VARIES IN CHILDREN’S LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT?
      4. HOW DOES INPUT SHAPE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN’S LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT?
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 2: The Embodied Experience: Multiple Levels of Influence on Word Learning
    1. Chapter 6: A Sensory-Motor Solution to Early Word-Referent Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTIMODAL DATA COLLECTION AND DATA PROCESSING
      4. THREE STUDIES
      5. GENERAL DISCUSSIONS
    2. Chapter 7: The Miracle Year
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING ABOUT SOUND STRUCTURE IN UTERO
      4. POSTNATAL PREFERENCES: EMERGING SENSITIVITY TO STRUCTURE IN THE SIGNAL
      5. QUANTITY VS. QUALITY? BOTH INFLUENCE ACQUISITION OF STRUCTURE FROM THE SIGNAL
      6. THE BEGINNING OF RECIPROCAL COMMUNICATION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    3. Chapter 8: An Embodied Model of Young Children’s Categorization and Word Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. STARTING YOUNG: CATEGORIZATION FROM DAY ONE
      3. A BIDIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CATEGORIES AND LABELS
      4. EMPIRICAL BASIS OF THE CURRENT PROJECT
      5. ICUB IMPLEMENTATION
      6. INSIGHTS INTO CATEGORIZATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 9: Developmental Language Learning from Human/Humanoid Robot Social Interactions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: DEVELOPMENTAL LEARNING
      3. NEW PARADIGMS FOR HUMANOID ROBOTS
      4. DEVELOPMENTAL LANGUAGE LEARNING BY ROBOTS
      5. CROSS-MODAL PERCEPTS ASSOCIATED TO ACOUSTIC INFORMATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 10: Making Use of Multi-Modal Synchrony
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION AND LEARNING
      4. 3. A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF ACOUSTIC PACKAGING
      5. 4. RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 3: Organismic Processes and Mechanisms for Word Learning
    1. Chapter 11: Development of Word Recognition across Speakers and Accents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEVELOPMENT OF WORD FORMS IN YOUNG CHILDREN
      5. ACCOUNTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF WORD FORMS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 12: A Neurorobotics Approach to Investigating Word Learning Behaviors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MULTIMODAL HABITUATION AND THE SYNCHRONY CONSTRAINT
      5. FREE LOOKING BEHAVIOR
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 13: Learning Words by Imitating
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SETUP
      5. EXPERIMENTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 14: I Think I Have Heard That One Before
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RECURRENCE DETECTION: A PERCEPTION MODEL
      5. CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK: AN INTERACTION MODEL
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    5. Chapter 15: Two Distinct Sequence Learning Mechanisms for Syntax Acquisition and Word Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SEQUENCE LEARNING AND LANGUAGE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
  10. Compilation of References
  11. About the Contributors