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The Web Application Hacker's Handbook: Finding and Exploiting Security Flaws, 2nd Edition by Marcus Pinto, Dafydd Stuttard

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Common Vulnerabilities

Access controls can be divided into three broad categories: vertical, horizontal, and context-dependent.

Vertical access controls allow different types of users to access different parts of the application's functionality. In the simplest case, this typically involves a division between ordinary users and administrators. In more complex cases, vertical access controls may involve fine-grained user roles granting access to specific functions, with each user being allocated to a single role, or a combination of different roles.

Horizontal access controls allow users to access a certain subset of a wider range of resources of the same type. For example, a web mail application may allow you to read your e-mail but no one else's, an online bank may let you transfer money out of your account only, and a workflow application may allow you to update tasks assigned to you but only read tasks assigned to other people.

Context-dependent access controls ensure that users' access is restricted to what is permitted given the current application state. For example, if a user is following multiple stages within a process, context-dependent access controls may prevent the user from accessing stages out of the prescribed order.

In many cases, vertical and horizontal access controls are intertwined. For example, an enterprise resource planning application may allow each accounts payable clerk to pay invoices for a specific organizational unit and no other. The accounts payable ...

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