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The Video Studio, 3rd Edition

Book Description

The recent demise of the independent television companies and the expansion of satellite and cable networks has led to an explosion in small, independent production facilities. In parallel with this development has been a steady increase in media training and a major expansion in corporate video facilities. The Video Studio is written for everyone contemplating setting-up a professional installation, whether studio or location based.


The Video Studio shows how to estimate the scale of investment required and, depending on the nature and frequency of use of the facility, the layout of technical areas and the function of the main items of equipment is described in easy to understand language. In short this is a nuts and bolts approach to planning and operating a studio of 150 square metres or less.

Completely updated to take account of all the recent technological advances which have taken place, the book now covers: DAT, timecode, digital compression, non-linear editing and all current digital video formats.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. INTRODUCTION
  7. STUDIO: INITIAL PLANNING
    1. The studio’s function
    2. Remote productions
    3. Constructional considerations
  8. STUDIO FACILITIES
    1. Technical facilities
    2. Production requirements
    3. Post-production requirements
  9. LAYOUT OF CONTROL AREAS
    1. Location near the studio
    2. Observation windows
    3. Communal control area
    4. Separate control areas
  10. STUDIO CONSTRUCTION
    1. Area, shape and height
    2. Floor, walls and ceiling
  11. STUDIO GENERAL SERVICES
    1. Access
    2. Power and lighting
    3. Studio markings and floor plan
  12. STUDIO SOUND INSULATION
    1. External noise
    2. Sound leakage
    3. Noise from ventilation
  13. STUDIO ACOUSTICS
    1. Acoustical treatment
    2. Reverberation time
    3. Required reverberation times
  14. STUDIO VENTILATION
    1. Preventing heat build-up
    2. General problems
    3. Auxiliary requirements
  15. STUDIO SCENERY
    1. Classifying colour
    2. Surface treatment
    3. Scenic storage and repair
  16. STUDIO CYCLORAMA
    1. The mobile cyc
    2. Cyc colour
    3. Rear-lit cyc
    4. Care and storage
  17. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT STORE
    1. Lighting equipment
    2. Camera cables
    3. General storage
  18. MAKE-UP
    1. Typical facilities
    2. Monitoring and communication
  19. COSTUME
    1. Typical facilities
    2. Costume suitability
    3. Monitoring and communication
  20. EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AREA
    1. Storage
    2. Test equipment
    3. Lighting
  21. SAFETY IN THE STUDIO
    1. Fire
    2. Electrical
    3. Safety bonds
    4. Tripping accidents
    5. Lifting
    6. Unstable items
  22. THE VISION SYSTEM
    1. Scanning
    2. Interlace
    3. Coding
    4. Bandwidth
  23. CHOICE OF CAMERA SYSTEM
    1. Composite/component
    2. Remote control
    3. Camera sensitivity
  24. PICTURE GENERATION
    1. Sensor system: tube/CCD
    2. Camera configuration
    3. Resolution
  25. CAMERA LENSES
    1. Focal length and angle of view (horizontal)
    2. Lens aperture
    3. Zoom lens
  26. CHOICE OF LENS
    1. Minimum object distance
    2. Macro
    3. Maximum lens aperture
    4. Range extenders
    5. Servos
  27. CAMERA MOUNTINGS
    1. Tripod
    2. Pedestal
    3. Pan and tilt head
    4. Sophisticated mountings
  28. CAMERA CABLES AND CABLING POINTS
    1. Cable care
    2. Cabling points
  29. VISION AND LIGHTING CONTROL AREA
    1. Control room position
    2. Cabling
    3. Operational considerations
  30. SIGNAL PROCESSING (CAMERA CONTROL UNIT)
    1. Control features
  31. LINE-UP OF CAMERA CHANNELS
    1. Starting the day
    2. Zoom tracking
    3. Line-up charts
  32. VISION CONTROL
    1. Lightweight cameras
    2. Full-facility vision control
  33. MONITORING THE VISION SIGNAL
    1. The TV waveform
    2. Signal levels
  34. PICTURE MONITORS: MONOCHROME
    1. Monitor adjustment
    2. Monitor termination
    3. Monitor suitability
  35. PICTURE MONITORS: COLOUR
    1. Monitor grades
    2. Colour monitor line-up
    3. Monitor line-up test signals
  36. SYNCHRONISATION
    1. Picture timing
    2. External picture sources
  37. VISION SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION
    1. Distribution amplifier
    2. Termination panel
    3. Cable distribution
    4. Radio frequency distribution
    5. Microwave links
    6. Fibre optic links
  38. PRODUCTION CONTROL ROOM
    1. Picture monitors
    2. Environment
    3. Layout
  39. VISION MIXER OR SWITCHER: FUNCTION
    1. Vision mixer design
    2. What to look for
  40. VISION MIXER: GENERAL FACILITIES
    1. The cut
    2. The mix or dissolve
    3. The fade-up/fade-out
    4. The superimposition
    5. Preview facilities
  41. VISION MIXER: SPECIAL EFFECTS
    1. The wipe
    2. The split screen
    3. Chroma key
    4. Caption key
    5. Black edger or borderline generator
    6. Colour synthesiser
  42. OTHER ANALOGUE VISION FACILITIES
    1. Floor monitors
    2. Projection systems
    3. Slide scanners
    4. Caption projection unit
  43. DIGITAL VIDEO TECHNOLOGY
    1. Digital video effects
    2. Pictures stores
    3. Standards conversion
  44. TELEVISION PROMPTERS
    1. Prompt card
    2. Hearing aid
    3. Electronic prompter
  45. GRAPHICS
    1. Correct aspect ratio
    2. Character generators
    3. Artwork
  46. LIGHTING: OVERALL SYSTEM
    1. Camera sensitivity
    2. Size of acting area
    3. Height of studio grid
    4. Turnround time
  47. SIMPLE LIGHTING SUPPORTS
    1. Floor stands
    2. Luminaires on flats
    3. Telescopic tubes
    4. Lightweight track
  48. LIGHTING SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
    1. Pipe grid
    2. Heavy track suspension
  49. LIGHTING: OUTLETS AND DIMMERS
    1. Dimmers
    2. Number of outlets
    3. Phase
    4. Extensions
  50. LIGHTING: GENERAL-PURPOSE LUMINAIRES
    1. Soft-edged spotlights
    2. Soft sources
  51. LIGHTING: SPECIAL LUMINAIRES
    1. Cyclorama lighting
    2. Special effects lighting
  52. LIGHTING: FLUORESCENT LIGHTS
    1. Why fluorescent lighting?
    2. Comfortable artistes
    3. High-frequency operation
    4. Colour temperature and colour rendition
  53. LIGHTING CONTROL DIMMERS (ANALOGUE)
    1. Thyristor or SCR dimmers
    2. Interference
    3. Digital-multiplex control
  54. LIGHTING CONTROL: DIMMERS (DIGITAL)
    1. Advantages of digital dimmers
    2. Rack mounting/Portable dimmers
  55. LIGHTING CONSOLE
    1. Console design
    2. Manual consoles
    3. Computer consoles
    4. Load meter
  56. MICROPHONE ASSESSMENT
    1. Technical characteristics
    2. Mechanical characteristics
    3. Powering arrangements
    4. Makers and cost
  57. MICROPHONE CATEGORIES
    1. Omni-directional
    2. Cardioid
    3. Figure-of-eight
    4. Hypercardioid
    5. Gun microphones
    6. Variable directivity
  58. SOUND PICK-UP
    1. Boom
    2. Fishpole
    3. Stand microphones
    4. Personal microphones
    5. Slung microphones
    6. Microphone positioning
  59. RADIO MICROPHONE
    1. Battery life
    2. Interference
    3. Hiring
  60. SOUND MIXING CONSOLES
    1. Basic design
    2. Operational facilities
  61. SOUND MIXING CONSOLE: OUTPUTS
    1. Foldback
    2. Public address
    3. Cleanfeed (mix-minus)
  62. MONITORING SOUND LEVELS
    1. VU meter
    2. Peak programme meter
  63. AUTOMATIC LEVEL CONTROL
    1. Compression
    2. Applications
    3. Noise gates
  64. FREQUENCY CORRECTION
    1. Types of correction
    2. Care in use
  65. ARTIFICAL REVERBERATION
    1. Why use it?
    2. Artificial reverberation devices
    3. Features of digital units
  66. LOUDSPEAKERS
    1. Monitoring
    2. Studio loudspeakers
    3. PA systems
    4. Loudness
  67. AUDIO TAPE RECORDERS (ANALOGUE)
    1. Types of recorder
    2. Desirable operational features
  68. AUDIO NOISE REDUCTION SYSTEMS
    1. Dolby A
    2. Other systems
  69. DIGITAL AUDIO
    1. Digital processing
    2. Error detection and correction
  70. DIGITAL TAPE RECORDING
    1. Basic methods
    2. Editing
  71. COMPACT DISCS
    1. Error correction
  72. SOUND PERSPECTIVE
    1. Matching sound and picture
  73. SOUND AND AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION
    1. Selected speakers
    2. Spontaneous contributions
  74. SOUND EFFECTS SOURCES
    1. Compact discs (CDs)
    2. Cassettes
    3. Cartridge machines
  75. TALKBACK IN THE STUDIO
    1. Production talkback
    2. Talkback variations
    3. Private-wire intercom
  76. COMMUNICATION IN THE STUDIO COMPLEX
    1. Signalling
    2. Intercom
    3. Lighting intercom
  77. TELECINE
    1. Film gauge
    2. Film leader
    3. Colour correction
    4. The future
  78. THE VIDEOTAPE FACILITY
    1. Studio-based
    2. On location
    3. Tape storage
  79. VIDEOTAPE RECORDERS
    1. Cassette VTRs
  80. BASIC OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF VTR
    1. Idents
    2. Pre-roll
    3. Timebase correctors
  81. VIDEOTAPE EDITING
    1. Three-machine dub editing
  82. VT EDIT SYSTEMS
    1. Control track editing
    2. Time-code editing
  83. NON-LINEAR EDITING SYSTEMS
  84. POST-PRODUCTION SUITES
    1. Equipment and layout
  85. SOUND DUBBING
    1. Sound tracks on various formats
  86. PROGRAMME AND PRODUCTION PLANNING
    1. Resource management
    2. Production planning
    3. Floor plan
  87. STUDIO DISCIPLINE
    1. Avoiding disturbance
    2. Avoiding extraneous noise
    3. General precautions
    4. Equipment care
  88. STAFFING AND RESPONSIBILITIES
    1. Staff members
  89. ON LOCATION: MAIN REQUIREMENTS
    1. Camera and recorder
    2. Sound
    3. Lighting
    4. Batteries
    5. Transit cases
  90. ON LOCATION: LIGHTING AND ACCESSORIES
    1. Monitor
    2. Clapper board and stopwatch
    3. Time-code generator
    4. Waterproof covers
  91. ON LOCATION: USING MICROPHONES
    1. Microphone in shot
    2. Microphone out of shot
    3. Monitoring out of doors
  92. ON LOCATION: CAMERA MOUNTINGS
    1. Heavy cameras
    2. Lightweight cameras
    3. Sophisticated mountings
  93. Further Reading
  94. Glossary