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The VES Handbook of Visual Effects, 2nd Edition by Jeffrey A. Okun, Susan Zwerman

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APPENDIX A

CHARTS AND FORMULAS

 

Miniatures

(From Photography of Miniature Effects—High-Speed Photography in Chapter 3.)

Formula to determine proper frame rate for scale being used:

(√m) x (r) = f

where

m = miniature’s scale
r = base frame rate
f = new frame rate.

Example: 1:4 scale at 24 fps = (√4) × (24) = (2) × (24) = 48 fps

Formula to determine proper actual speed of a scaled object at a scaled frame rate:

(rs/m) = (b)

(b) x (r) = (as)

where

rs = real object speed
m = miniature’s scale
b = base speed
r = frame rate factor
as = actual speed for filming.
Examples: 36 mph × 1:6 scale car = 8.8 feet per second
8.8 feet per second × 2.5 normal frame rate = 22 feet per second

Camera and Lens Chart ...

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