Jouko Rautio and Jyrki T. J. Penttinen
“EMF” – short for Electro Magnetic Fields – is a term used to point to the radiation properties of radio transmitters, the related safety regulation and related health issues (including speculated ones).
The EMF issue also includes the scientific, public and even political debate about the RF radiation and its interaction with living biological tissue – real or speculated. Please note that the “EMF” generally covers radio frequency [10 MHz to 300 GHz], intermediate frequency [300 Hz to 10 MHz], low frequency [up to 300 Hz] and static fields, but the focus in this book limits us only to RF and all further mentions about EMF should thus be understood as RF only, if not otherwise mentioned.
The reader should note, that EMF and EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) are, although relative terms, two different items as the EMF refers to radio waves influencing living tissues but EMC refers to radio waves influencing nonliving equipment (usually electronics). Typically the power strength of a radio transmission able to cause a harmful effect to a living tissue is several magnitudes larger than those which can cause interference to nonprotected electronics circuits.
This chapter will consider the scientific background and EMF related organizations, and look at the science in various EMF topics as well as briefly looking at radiation safety in the vicinity of antennas e.g., for the cases ...