Jyrki T. J. Penttinen
The fraud related to mobile devices can include unauthorized use, manipulation or tampering the equipment needed for communications. The form of fraud depends on the technologies and can be estimated to develop to a more advanced degree along with the general advances of the technologies. As an example, during the first generation of the mobile communications systems, the cloning of subscription identities was one of the most used forms of illegal activity. Some concrete issues were the cloning of the actual subscription number in order to utilize telecommunications services whilst the respective costs were generated to the original legal owner of the subscription. As technologies have been advanced much faster than the legislation, there has been a transition time that has caused important updates to the laws against modern fraud, as can be interpreted in references [1–3].
Not only has legislation been developing, but preventing technologies have taken major leaps to protect users and operators.
Mobile communications is one type of radio communications, and therefore the early cases of frauds related to first and second generation mobile communications were complicated as for the interpretation of typically very outdated radio emission laws. As an example, in the USA, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 had been the first major overhaul ...