Jyrki T. J. Penttinen
The telecommunications area is significantly full of terminology. This chapter aims to set up the scene by clarifying the essential contents of the terms, and gives ideas on how the terminology differs based on the standards, operator and equipment manufacturer environments.
This chapter also brings views on the evolution of the systems and applications, and identifies the needs that drive the evolution of telecommunications further. In addition, this chapter gives essential guidelines about the frequency spectrum allocations by identifying the ITU regions and principles, and showing also the regional aspects. Frequency regulation in general is at the end the task of each country, so this chapter clarifies the principles of the global and local levels. As one important part of this environment, the interference aspects and shielding are explained.
To complete this chapter, near-future and longer term systems are identified at a high level. For modern systems, the spectral efficiency and optimal utilization of frequencies is one of the most important tasks of operators of wireless communications, so this aspect is covered. Finally, physical aspects of the systems are explained, including the principles of radio interface and radio links, electrical wires and optical fibers. This chapter thus creates the technical, high-level basis for the forthcoming chapters.