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The Structure of Learning by Beatrix Gardner, R. Allen Gardner

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CHAPTER  9

Appetite, Aversion, and Conflict

Throughout the 20th century, the concept of motivation has served three functions in most psychological theories: 1) driving behavior, 2) directing and selecting behavior, and 3) rewarding behavior. With respect to the driving or energizing function, conventional psychological theory maintained that active behavior requires internal motive force. According to this view, an animal that was satiated for all incentives—hunger, thirst, sex, warmth, etc., would become completely inactive and probably fall asleep—unless aroused by pain or threat of pain. With respect to the directing and selecting function, in order to eat when hungry and drink when thirsty, an animal must be able to tell when it is thirsty ...

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