Sequence and Anticipation
Many critical analyses in this book depend on sequences of stimuli and responses that arise from experience with an S* and must anticipate the S* for conditioning to be effective. These sequences are the basis of the analyses of preconditioning in chapter 4 and of goal gradient effects in chapter 5. The existence of sequences of stimuli and responses and also response-produced stimuli is based on actual observation rather than on speculative theory. This chapter describes two case histories in which conjectures about anticipatory links in a sequence led from academic debates about top-down contingency to bottom-up observations of actual behavior.
According to response reinforcement theory, ...