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The Smart Grid

Book Description

This book links the challenges to which the electricity network is exposed with the range of new technology, methodologies and market mechanisms known under the name "smart grid." The main challenges will be described by the way in which they impact the electricity network: the introduction of renewable electricity production, energy efficiency, the introduction and further opening of the electricity market, increasing demands for reliability and voltage quality, and the growing need for more transport capacity in the grid. Three fundamentally different types of solutions are distinguished in this book: solutions only involving the electricity network (like HVDC and active distribution networks), solutions including the network users but under the control of the network operator (like requirements on production units and curtailment), and fully market-driven solutions (like demand response). An overview is given of the various solutions to the challenges that are possible with new technology; this includes some that are actively discussed elsewhere and others that are somewhat forgotten. Linking the different solutions with the needs of the electricity network, in the light of the various challenges, is a recurring theme in this book. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Challenges / Solutions in the Grid / Participation of Network Users / Market Incentives / Discussion / Conclusions

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title
  3. Copyright
  4. Title
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface and Acknowledgments
  8. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 The Electricity Network
    2. 1.2 The Smart Grid
    3. 1.3 The Stakeholders
    4. 1.4 The Challenges
    5. 1.5 The Solutions
  9. 2 The Challenges
    1. 2.1 Renewable Electricity Production
      1. 2.1.1 Integration in the Distribution Network
      2. 2.1.2 Integration in the Transmission Network
      3. 2.1.3 Replacing Conventional Generators
      4. 2.1.4 Forecasting
    2. 2.2 Energy Efficiency
      1. 2.2.1 Reduced Electricity Consumption
      2. 2.2.2 Losses in the Grid
      3. 2.2.3 Increased Electricity Applications
      4. 2.2.4 Combined-Heat-and-Power
    3. 2.3 The Electricity Market
    4. 2.4 Continuity of Supply and Voltage Quality
      1. 2.4.1 Need for Improved Performance
      2. 2.4.2 New Production and Consumption
      3. 2.4.3 Reliability Indicators
      4. 2.4.4 Voltage Quality Indicators
    5. 2.5 Transport Capacity
      1. 2.5.1 Distribution
      2. 2.5.2 Subtransmission and Transmission
      3. 2.5.3 Production
      4. 2.5.4 Insufficient Transport Capacity
    6. 2.6 Performance Indicators
  10. 3 Solutions in the Grid
    1. 3.1 Classical Solutions
    2. 3.2 Transport Capacity
      1. 3.2.1 High-voltage Direct Current (HVDC)
      2. 3.2.2 FACTS
      3. 3.2.3 Dynamic Line Rating
      4. 3.2.4 Risk-Based Operation
    3. 3.3 Large Transmission Networks
    4. 3.4 Storage
    5. 3.5 Active Distribution Networks
      1. 3.5.1 Distribution-System Protection
      2. 3.5.2 Voltage Control
      3. 3.5.3 Microgrids
      4. 3.5.4 Automatic Supply Restoration
    6. 3.6 Monitoring
  11. 4 Participation of Network Users
    1. 4.1 Setting Requirements on Production Units
    2. 4.2 Curtailment: Existing Applications
    3. 4.3 Intertrip
      1. 4.3.1 Industrial installation
      2. 4.3.2 Wind Park
      3. 4.3.3 Meshed Network
      4. 4.3.4 Overload-Triggered Disconnection.
    4. 4.4 More Applications of Curtailment
      1. 4.4.1 Preventing Overload
      2. 4.4.2 Thermal Overload in Radial Networks
      3. 4.4.3 Thermal Overload in Meshed Networks
      4. 4.4.4 Over- and Undervoltages in Radial Networks
      5. 4.4.5 Reserves in Distribution Networks
      6. 4.4.6 Voltage and Current Quality
      7. 4.4.7 Angular Stability
      8. 4.4.8 Frequency Stability
      9. 4.4.9 Voltage Stability
    5. 4.5 Curtailment Examples
      1. 4.5.1 Example 1: Overload due to Solar Power
      2. 4.5.2 Example 2: Transformer Overload due to Wind Power
      3. 4.5.3 Example 3: Overvoltage due to Wind Power
  12. 5 Market Incentives
    1. 5.1 Wholesale and Retail Markets
    2. 5.2 The Day-Ahead Market
      1. 5.2.1 The Spot Market
      2. 5.2.2 Local Prices and Market Splitting
    3. 5.3 Demand Response
      1. 5.3.1 Time-of-Use Pricing
      2. 5.3.2 Other Methods
      3. 5.3.3 Hourly Pricing
      4. 5.3.4 Critical Peak Pricing
      5. 5.3.5 Critical Peak Rebate
      6. 5.3.6 Multi-Tier Prices
      7. 5.3.7 Reduction in Peak Consumption due to Demand Response
      8. 5.3.8 Demand Response at System Level
      9. 5.3.9 Example - Switching Off Consumption
      10. 5.3.10 Example - Shifting Consumption
      11. 5.3.11 Demand Response Based on Carbon-Dioxide Emission
      12. 5.3.12 Recovery Peak
    4. 5.4 Beyond the Spot Market
      1. 5.4.1 Overview of Different Markets
      2. 5.4.2 Examples of Price Variations
      3. 5.4.3 Balancing by Demand Response
      4. 5.4.4 Impact of Demand Response on Balancing
    5. 5.5 Markets and the Network
    6. 5.6 Ancillary-Service Markets
      1. 5.6.1 Operational Reserve
      2. 5.6.2 Frequency Control
      3. 5.6.3 Reactive Power and Voltage Control
      4. 5.6.4 Short-Circuit Capacity
      5. 5.6.5 Voltage Quality
      6. 5.6.6 Black-Start
      7. 5.6.7 Island Operation of the Grid
      8. 5.6.8 Inertia
      9. 5.6.9 Stability
      10. 5.6.10 Overview
    7. 5.7 Network User
      1. 5.7.1 General Network User
      2. 5.7.2 Small Consumers
      3. 5.7.3 Small and Large Production
      4. 5.7.4 Storage
      5. 5.7.5 Medium-Sized and Large Customers
      6. 5.7.6 Electric Vehicles
      7. 5.7.7 Microgrids and Virtual Power Plants
      8. 5.7.8 Smart Meters and Other Communication
  13. 6 Discussion
    1. 6.1 Economics of Network Operation
      1. 6.1.1 Tariff Regulation
      2. 6.1.2 Performance Indicators
    2. 6.2 Reserve Options
    3. 6.3 Initial Trends
      1. 6.3.1 Distribution Networks
      2. 6.3.2 Subtransmission Networks
      3. 6.3.3 Transmission Network and System
      4. 6.3.4 Network Users
  14. 7 Conclusions
  15. Bibliography
  16. Author’s Biography
  17. Index