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The Semantic Sphere 1: Computation, Cognition and Information Economy

Book Description

The new digital media offers us an unprecedented memory capacity, an ubiquitous communication channel and a growing computing power. How can we exploit this medium to augment our personal and social cognitive processes at the service of human development? Combining a deep knowledge of humanities and social sciences as well as a real familiarity with computer science issues, this book explains the collaborative construction of a global hypercortex coordinated by a computable metalanguage. By recognizing fully the symbolic and social nature of human cognition, we could transform our current opaque global brain into a reflexive collective intelligence.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Chapter 1: General Introduction
    1. 1.1. The vision: to enhance cognitive processes
      1. 1.1.1. The semantic imperative
      2. 1.1.2. The ethical imperative
      3. 1.1.3. The technical imperative
    2. 1.2. A transdisciplinary intellectual adventure
      1. 1.2.1. The years of training, 1975—1992
      2. 1.2.2. The years of conception, 1992—2002
        1. 1.2.2.1. The generalized trivium
        2. 1.2.2.2. Archetypes
          1. 1.2.2.2.1. Comments on the archetypes
        3. 1.2.2.3. Triplication
        4. 1.2.2.4. The dialectic of address and message
        5. 1.2.2.5. Toward a dialectic of virtual and actual
        6. 1.2.2.6. Further research
      3. 1.2.3. The years of gestation, 2002—2010
        1. 1.2.3.1. A model of collective intelligence
        2. 1.2.3.2. A regular language
    3. 1.3. The result: toward hypercortical cognition
      1. 1.3.1. A system of coordinates
        1. 1.3.1.1. Paradigmatic links
          1. 1.3.1.1.1. Etymological links
          2. 1.3.1.1.2. Taxonomic links
          3. 1.3.1.1.3. Symmetrical links
          4. 1.3.1.1.4. Serial links
        2. 1.3.1.2. Syntagmatic links
        3. 1.3.1.3. A computational topology
      2. 1.3.2. An information economy
      3. 1.3.3. A Hypercortex to contribute to cognitive augmentation
        1. 1.3.3.1. A scientific model of human cognition
        2. 1.3.3.2. Knowledge management that respects cultural diversity
        3. 1.3.3.3. A writing that makes the intellectual mastery of information flows possible
        4. 1.3.3.4. Humanistic openness or post-human singularity?
    4. 1.4. General plan of this book
  6. Part 1. The Philosophy of Iinformation
    1. Chapter 2: The Nature of Information
      1. 2.1. Orientation
      2. 2.2. The information paradigm
        1. 2.2.1. Information and symbolic systems
        2. 2.2.2. The sources of the information paradigm
        3. 2.2.3. Information between form and difference
        4. 2.2.4. Information and time
      3. 2.3. Layers of encoding
        1. 2.3.1. A layered structure
        2. 2.3.2. The physicochemical and organic layers
        3. 2.3.3. The phenomenal layer
        4. 2.3.4. The symbolic layer
        5. 2.3.5. A synthetic view of the layers of information
      4. 2.4. Evolution in information nature
      5. 2.5. The unity of nature
        1. 2.5.1. Natural information and cultural information
        2. 2.5.2. Nature as a “great symbol”
    2. Chapter 3: Symbolic Cognition
      1. 3.1. Delimitation of the field of symbolic cognition
        1. 3.1.1. Singularity
        2. 3.1.2. Social and technical dimensions
        3. 3.1.3. Symbolic manipulation goes far beyond linguistic competence and “reason”
      2. 3.2. The secondary reflexivity of symbolic cognition
        1. 3.2.1. The primary reflexivity of phenomenal consciousness
        2. 3.2.2. The secondary reflexivity of discursive consciousness
      3. 3.3. Symbolic power and its manifestations
      4. 3.4. The reciprocal enveloping of the phenomenal world and semantic world
      5. 3.5. The open intelligence of culture
      6. 3.6. Differences between animal and human collective intelligence
    3. Chapter 4: Creative Conversation
      1. 4.1. Beyond “collective stupidity”
      2. 4.2. Reflexive explication and sharing of knowledge
        1. 4.2.1. Personal and social knowledge management
          1. 4.2.1.1. Introduction to knowledge management
          2. 4.2.1.2. The cycle of personal knowledge management
            1. 4.2.1.2.1. Attention management
            2. 4.2.1.2.2. Choice of sources
            3. 4.2.1.2.3. Collection, filtering, categorization and recording of information flows
            4. 4.2.1.2.4. Synthesis, sharing and conversation
            5. 4.2.1.2.5. The feedback loop of personal knowledge management
            6. 4.2.1.2.6. Techniques pass but cognitive function remains
        2. 4.2.2. The role of explication in social knowledge management
        3. 4.2.3. Dialectic of memory and creative conversation
      3. 4.3. The symbolic medium of creative conversation
        1. 4.3.1. The question of the symbolic medium
        2. 4.3.2. The metalinguistic articulation of organized memory
        3. 4.3.3. How can creative conversation organize digital memory?
    4. Chapter 5: Toward an Epistemological Transformation of the Human Sciences
      1. 5.1. The stakes of human development
        1. 5.1.1. The scope of human development
        2. 5.1.2. In search of models of human development
        3. 5.1.3. Social capital and human development
        4. 5.1.4. The knowledge society and human development: a six-pole model
      2. 5.2. Critique of the human sciences
        1. 5.2.1. Human sciences and natural sciences
        2. 5.2.2. Internal fragmentation
        3. 5.2.3. Methodological weaknesses
        4. 5.2.4. Lack of coordination
      3. 5.3. The threefold renewal of the human sciences
        1. 5.3.1. New possibilities for collaboration
          1. 5.3.1.1. Direct access to and collective use of data and tools
          2. 5.3.1.1. Direct access to and collective use of data and tools
          3. 5.3.1.3. A new type of informal creative conversation
        2. 5.3.2. New possibilities for observation, memory and calculation
          1. 5.3.2.1. Availability of data and calculating power
          2. 5.3.2.2. Absence of the tools for semantic synthesis needed to make full use of the new situation
        3. 5.3.3. Toward a system of semantic coordinates
          1. 5.3.3.1. Historical context
          2. 5.3.3.2. A metalanguage that serves the human sciences
      4. 5.4. The Ouroboros
    5. Chapter 6: The Information Economy
      1. 6.1. The symbiosis of knowledge capital and cognitive labor
        1. 6.1.1. The genealogy of capital
        2. 6.1.2. The commons: the interdependence of human populations, ecosystems of ideas and biological ecosystems
      2. 6.2. Toward scientific self-management of collective intelligence
        1. 6.2.1. Political economy and collective intelligence
        2. 6.2.2. The autopoiesis of collective intelligence
      3. 6.3. Flows of symbolic energy
        1. 6.3.1. The problem of the general equivalent
        2. 6.3.2. The power of mana
        3. 6.3.3. The complete circuit of information
      4. 6.4. Ecosystems of ideas and the semantic information economy
        1. 6.4.1. An “eco” paradigm for thinking about semantic information
          1. 6.4.1.1. Etymology and general approach
          2. 6.4.1.2. Distinction between unity and uniformity
        2. 6.4.2. Ecosystems of ideas in epistemology
        3. 6.4.3. General characteristics of ecosystems of ideas
          1. 6.4.3.1. Ecosystems of ideas live in interdependence with human populations
          2. 6.4.3.2. The world of ideas is not separate from the sensory world
          3. 6.4.3.3. Ecosystems of ideas evolve
      5. 6.5. The semantic information economy in the digital medium
        1. 6.5.1. The prophets of media and the “global brain”
        2. 6.5.2. Semantic information economy and the commons in the digital medium
  7. Part 2. Modeling Cognition
    1. Chapter 7: Introduction to the Scientific Knowledge of the Mind
      1. 7.1. Research program
        1. 7.1.1. Profession of pragmatic faith
        2. 7.1.2. Initial questions
        3. 7.1.3. Instruments
        4. 7.1.4. Subject-object
        5. 7.1.5. Method and result.
      2. 7.2. The mind in nature
        1. 7.2.1. The uni-duality of communication nature
          1. 7.2.1.1. Virtual and actual spheres of communication
          2. 7.2.1.2. Actual space-time
          3. 7.2.1.2. Actual space-time
          4. 7.2.1.4. The interdependent co-emergence of the virtual and actual spheres
        2. 7.2.2. The uni-ternarity of communication nature.
      3. 7.3. The three symbolic functions of the cortex
        1. 7.3.1. The syntactic function
        2. 7.3.2. The semantic function
        3. 7.3.3. The pragmatic function
          1. 7.3.3.1. Interpretation, memory, action
          2. 7.3.3.2. Ideas
          3. 7.3.3.3. Pragmatics and general rhetoric
        4. 7.3.4. The sign (S)/being (B)/thing (T) dialectic of symbolic cognition
      4. 7.4. The IEML model of symbolic cognition
        1. 7.4.1. The semantic sphere: the mathematical basis of the IEML model of the mind
        2. 7.4.2. The Cortex, the Hypercortex and the semantic sphere
        3. 7.4.3. The Cortex, the Hypercortex and the mind
        4. 7.4.4. General structure of the IEML model
        5. 7.4.5. IEML as machine: formal properties
          1. 7.4.5.1. Toward a universal semantic calculus
          2. 7.4.5.1. Toward a universal semantic calculus
        6. 7.4.6. IEML as metalanguage: semantic properties
          1. 7.4.6.1. STAR: The linguistic operating system of the IEML semantic machine
          2. 7.4.6.2. IEML as a human language
          3. 7.4.6.3. IEML as a computer language
        7. 7.4.7. IEML as a universe of games: pragmatic properties
          1. 7.4.7.1. The hermeneutic functions and the production of ideas
          2. 7.4.7.1. The hermeneutic functions and the production of ideas
          3. 7.4.7.3. IEML games and knowledge management
      5. 7.5. The architecture of the Hypercortex
        1. 7.5.1. The Internet
        2. 7.5.2. The IEML semantic sphere
        3. 7.5.3. Interdependence of the semantic sphere and the Internet
        4. 7.5.4. New perspectives in computer science and the human sciences
      6. 7.6. Overview: toward a reflexive collective intelligence
    2. Chapter 8: The Computer Science Perspective: Toward a Reflexive Intelligence
      1. 8.1. Augmented collective intelligence
        1. 8.1.1. A new field of research
        2. 8.1.2. A direction for cultural evolution in the long term
      2. 8.2. The purpose of automatic manipulation of symbols: cognitive modeling and self-knowledge
        1. 8.2.1. Substitution or augmentation?
        2. 8.2.2. Modeling of separate or connected intelligences?
        3. 8.2.3. Conscious machines or machines that mirror collective cognition?
          1. 8.2.3.1. Embodiment
          2. 8.2.3.2. Know thyself
          3. 8.2.3.3. Reflexive consciousness and computation of meaning
          4. 8.2.3.4. The Hypercortex: serving reflexive intelligence
      3. 8.3. The means of automatic manipulation of symbols: beyond probabilities and logic
        1. 8.3.1. Exploration of graphs
        2. 8.3.2. Limitations of statistics
        3. 8.3.3. Limitations of logic
        4. 8.3.4. Symbolic cognition cannot be modeled without full recognition of the interdependence in which it originates
    3. Chapter 9: General Presentation of the IEML Semantic Sphere
      1. 9.1. Ideas
        1. 9.1.1. Internal structure
          1. 9.1.1.1. Percepts
          2. 9.1.1.2. Affects
          3. 9.1.1.3. Concepts
          4. 9.1.1.4. Internal unity
        2. 9.1.2. Production of ideas
        3. 9.1.3. Networks of ideas
      2. 9.2. Concepts
        1. 9.2.1. A concept reflects a category in a symbol
        2. 9.2.2. A concept interconnects concepts
        3. 9.2.3. The IEML model of the concept
        4. 9.2.4. Addressing of ideas by concepts
          1. 9.2.4.1. On the relationship of ideas and concepts
          2. 9.2.4.2. Why is it the concept that addresses the idea?
          3. 9.2.4.3. The nature of semantic addressing
      3. 9.3. Unity and calculability
        1. 9.3.1. Functional calculability
        2. 9.3.2. The unity of the mind
        3. 9.3.3. Requirements of calculability for a system of semantic coordinates
      4. 9.4. Symmetry
        1. 9.4.1. Unity and symmetry
        2. 9.4.2. Graph theory and the human sciences
        3. 9.4.3. Group theory and the human sciences
      5. 9.5. Internal coherence
        1. 9.5.1. The mathematical formalization of concepts is a methodological necessity
        2. 9.5.2. The identification code for concepts cannot be based directly on empirical data
          1. 9.5.2.1. Inadequacy of a neural basis
          2. 9.5.2.2. Inadequacy of a sociotechnical basis
          3. 9.5.2.3. Inadequacy of a basis in natural languages
          4. 9.5.2.4. Conclusion
        3. 9.5.3. Concepts can only be distinguished through their mutual relationships
      6. 9.6. Inexhaustible complexity
        1. 9.6.1. The inexhaustible complexity of the mind
        2. 9.6.2. The unlimited variety of concepts and their transformations
        3. 9.6.3. The unlimited size of concepts
    4. Chapter 10: The IEML Metalanguage
      1. 10.1. The problem of encoding concepts
      2. 10.2. Text units
        1. 10.2.1. The layers of text units
        2. 10.2.2. Classes of text units
        3. 10.2.3. The roles of text units
      3. 10.3. Circuits of meaning
        1. 10.3.1. Langue and parole
        2. 10.3.2. Paradigmatic circuits
        3. 10.3.3. Syntagmatic circuits
      4. 10.4. Between text and circuits
        1. 10.4.1. What is meaning?
        2. 10.4.2. Correspondences between chains of signifiers and circuits of signifieds: the natural semantic machine
        3. 10.4.3. The independence of the textual and conceptual machines
        4. 10.4.4. The interdependence of textual and conceptual machines
    5. Chapter 11: The IEML Semantic Machine
      1. 11.1. Overview of the functions involved in symbolic cognition
        1. 11.1.1. Arithmetic and logical functions
        2. 11.1.2. Hermeneutic functions
        3. 11.1.3. Natural semantic functions
          1. 11.1.3.1. The textual function
          2. 11.1.3.2. The linguistic function
          3. 11.1.3.3. The conceptual function
          4. 11.1.3.4. The interdependence of semantic functions
      2. 11.2. Requirements for the construction of the IEML semantic machine
        1. 11.2.1. Concepts must be encoded in IEML as semantic networks
        2. 11.2.2. The conceptual, textual and linguistic functions of the IEML semantic machine must be inseparable
        3. 11.2.3. Concepts encoded in IEML must be variables of a transformation group
        4. 11.2.4. Concepts encoded in IEML must be automatically translated into natural languages
      3. 11.3. The IEML textual machine (S)
        1. 11.3.1. Introduction to the textual machine
        2. 11.3.2. The mathematical properties of IEML
      4. 11.4. The STAR (Semantic Tool for Augmented Reasoning) linguistic engine (B)
        1. 11.4.1. Introduction to the linguistic function
        2. 11.4.2. Metalanguage
        3. 11.4.3. Rules for the construction of circuits
        4. 11.4.4. The dictionary
        5. 11.4.5. The STAR dialect
        6. 11.4.6. From USL to semantic circuit
      5. 11.5. The conceptual machine (T)
        1. 11.5.1. The transformation of semantic circuits
        2. 11.5.2. The openness and complexity of the circuits of the semantic sphere
      6. 11.6. Conclusion
        1. 11.6.1. The unit of semantic information
        2. 11.6.2. The two faces of the semantic sphere
        3. 11.6.3. Directions of development
    6. Chapter 12: The Hypercortex
      1. 12.1. The role of media and symbolic systems in cognition
      2. 12.2. The digital medium
        1. 12.2.1. General definition
        2. 12.2.2. The automation of symbol manipulation
        3. 12.2.3. The digitization of memory
        4. 12.2.4. The compartmentalization of symbolic systems
        5. 12.2.5. The non-computability of symbolic systems
        6. 12.2.6. The opacity of the Web
        7. 12.2.7. An unfinished matrix
      3. 12.3. The evolution of the layers of addressing in the digital medium
        1. 12.3.1. The era of big computers (addressing of bits)
        2. 12.3.2. The age of personal computers and the Internet (addressing of automata)
        3. 12.3.3. The era of the Web (addressing of data)
        4. 12.3.4. The era of the semantic sphere (addressing of ideas)
      4. 12.4. Between the Cortex and the Hypercortex
        1. 12.4.1. Parallels between the Cortex and the Hypercortex
      5. 12.5. Toward an observatory of collective intelligence
        1. 12.5.1. Sensory-motor interfaces
        2. 12.5.2. The IEML semantic machine
        3. 12.5.3. The semantic sphere
        4. 12.5.4. The IEML metalanguage: the key to semantic interoperability
        5. 12.5.5. Ecosystems of ideas: introduction to hermeneutic memory
      6. 12.6. Conclusion: the computability and interoperability of semantic and hermeneutic functions
    7. Chapter 13: Hermeneutic Memory
      1. 13.1. Toward a semantic organization of memory
        1. 13.1.1. Implications of collective processes of categorization in the digital medium
        2. 13.1.2. A renewed approach to the problem of categorization
      2. 13.2. The layers of complexity of memory
      3. 13.3. Radical hermeneutics
        1. 13.3.1. Introduction to the hermeneutic approach to cognition
        2. 13.3.2. The thesis of radical hermeneutics
          1. 13.3.2.1. It is impossible to separate cognition from memoryon
          2. 13.3.2.2. All organization of memory is interpretative in nature
        3. 13.3.3. Radical hermeneutics beyond the misunderstandings
      4. 13.4. The hermeneutics of information
        1. 13.4.1. Data
        2. 13.4.2. Perception
          1. 13.4.2.1. Categorization
          2. 13.4.2.1. Categorization
          3. 13.4.2.1. Categorization
          4. 13.4.2.4. The production of intensity
          5. 13.4.2.5. The result of perception: the phenomenal information unit
        3. 13.4.3. The semantic information unit
      5. 13.5. The hermeneutics of knowledge
        1. 13.5.1. Thought
        2. 13.5.2. The semantic information unit as a tool for cognitive modeling
          1. 13.5.2.1. The information unit as an idea
          2. 13.5.2.2. The information unit as an utterance
          3. 13.5.2.3. The information unit as a meme
        3. 13.5.3. The noumenal circuit as a tool for cognitive modeling
          1. 13.5.3.1. The noumenal circuit as a theory
          2. 13.5.3.2. The noumenal circuit as narrative
          3. 13.5.3.3. Cognitive simulation
        4. 13.5.4. Hierarchy of the functions of symbolic cognition
          1. 13.5.4.1. Semantic functions
          2. 13.5.4.2. Hermeneutic functions
      6. 13.6. Wisdom
      7. 13.7. Collective interpretation games
        1. 13.7.1. Reading/writing
        2. 13.7.2. Exploration
        3. 13.7.3. Feedback
        4. 13.7.4. Coordination of the games
    8. Chapter 14. The Perspective of the Humanities: Toward Explicit Knowledge
      1. 14.1. Context
        1. 14.1.1. The increasingly transnational, transdisciplinary and democratic nature of the human sciences
        2. 14.1.2. Agendas and the stakes of power
      2. 14.2. Methodology: the digital humanities
        1. 14.2.1. The science of collective intelligence and the collective intelligence of the human sciences
        2. 14.2.2. What are the digital humanities today?
        3. 14.2.3. A new writing that serves the human sciences
        4. 14.2.4. The encoding and semantic use of data
      3. 14.3. Epistemology: explicating symbolic cognition
        1. 14.3.1. Reflexive knowledge and non-reflexive knowledge
        2. 14.3.2. The cognitive process
        3. 14.3.3. Essences: the power of symbolic cognition
        4. 14.3.4. Concepts: intellectual cognition
        5. 14.3.5. Ideas: affective cognition
        6. 14.3.6. Stories: narrative cognition
        7. 14.3.7. Autopoietic cognition
        8. 14.3.8. The dark side of power
    9. Chapter 15. Observing Collective Intelligence
      1. 15.1. The semantic sphere as a mirror of concepts
        1. 15.1.1. Reflecting the world of ideas
        2. 15.1.2. The IEML semantic sphere
      2. 15.2. The structure of the cognitive image
        1. 15.2.1. The integration of data into calculable cognitive models
        2. 15.2.2. The ternary structure of the cognitive image S/B/T
          1. 15.2.2.1. The ternary structure of the semantic information unit
          2. 15.2.2.2. The topological image: semantic circuits S
          3. 15.2.2.3. The energy image: semantic currents
          4. 15.2.2.4. The referential image: multimedia data T
        3. 15.2.3. The dual structure of the cognitive image U/A
      3. 15.3. The two eyes of reflexive observation
  8. Bibliography
  9. Index