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The Safety Critical Systems Handbook, 4th Edition

Book Description

The Safety Critical Systems Handbook: A Straightforward Guide to Functional Safety: IEC 61508 (2010 Edition), IEC 61511 (2016 Edition) & Related Guidance, Fourth Edition, presents the latest on the electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic systems that provide safety functions that guard workers and the public against injury or death, and the environment against pollution.

The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and authors David Smith and Kenneth Simpson provide a comprehensive guide to the revised standard, as well as the revised IEC 61511 (2016). The book enables engineers to determine if a proposed or existing piece of equipment meets the safety integrity levels (SIL) required by the various standards and guidance, and also describes the requirements for the new alternative route (route 2H), introduced in 2010.

A number of other areas have been updated by Smith and Simpson in this new edition, including the estimation of common cause failure, calculation of PFDs and failure rates for redundant configurations, societal risk, and additional second tier guidance documents.

As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, machinery, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers.



  • Provides the only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards
  • Addresses the 2016 updates to IEC 61511 to helps readers understand the processes required to apply safety critical systems standards and guidance
  • Presents a real-world approach that helps users interpret new standards, with case studies and best practice design examples throughout

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. The relationship of the documents to IEC 61508
  6. A Quick Overview
  7. The 2010 Version of IEC 61508
  8. The 2016 Version of IEC 61511
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Part A. The Concept of Safety Integrity
    1. Chapter 1. The Meaning and Context of Safety Integrity Targets
      1. 1.1. Risk and the Need for Safety Targets
      2. 1.2. Quantitative and Qualitative Safety Target
      3. 1.3. The Life-Cycle Approach
      4. 1.4. Steps in the Assessment Process
      5. 1.5. Costs
      6. 1.6. The Seven Parts of IEC 61508
      7. 1.7. HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study)
    2. Chapter 2. Meeting IEC 61508 Part 1
      1. 2.1. Establishing Integrity Targets
      2. 2.2. “As Low as Reasonably Practicable”
      3. 2.3. Functional Safety Management and Competence
      4. IEC 61508 Part 1
      5. 2.4. Societal Risk
      6. 2.5. Example Involving Both Individual and Societal Risk
    3. Chapter 3. Meeting IEC 61508 Part 2
      1. 3.1. Organizing and Managing the Life Cycle
      2. 3.2. Requirements Involving the Specification
      3. 3.3. Requirements for Design and Development
      4. 3.4. Integration and Test (Referred to as Verification)
      5. 3.5. Operations and Maintenance
      6. 3.6. Validation (Meaning Overall Acceptance Test and the Close Out of Actions)
      7. 3.7. Safety Manuals
      8. 3.8. Modifications
      9. 3.9. Acquired Subsystems
      10. 3.10. “Proven in Use” (Referred to as Route 2s in the Standard)
      11. 3.11. ASICs and CPU Chips
      12. 3.12. Conformance Demonstration Template
      13. IEC 61508 Part 2
    4. Chapter 4. Meeting IEC 61508 Part 3
      1. 4.1. Organizing and Managing the Software Engineering
      2. 4.2. Requirements Involving the Specification
      3. 4.3. Requirements for Design and Development
      4. 4.4. Integration and Test (Referred to as Verification)
      5. 4.5. Validation (Meaning Overall Acceptance Test and Close Out of Actions)
      6. 4.6. Safety Manuals
      7. 4.7. Modifications
      8. 4.8. Alternative Techniques and Procedures
      9. 4.9. Data-Driven Systems
      10. 4.10. Some Technical Comments
      11. 4.11. Conformance Demonstration Template
      12. IEC 61508 Part 3
    5. Chapter 5. Reliability Modeling Techniques
      1. 5.1. Failure Rate and Unavailability
      2. 5.2. Creating a Reliability Model
      3. 5.3. Taking Account of Auto Test
      4. 5.4. Human Factors
    6. Chapter 6. Failure Rate and Mode Data
      1. 6.1. Data Accuracy
      2. 6.2. Sources of Data
      3. 6.3. Data Ranges and Confidence Levels
      4. 6.4. Conclusions
    7. Chapter 7. Demonstrating and Certifying Conformance
      1. 7.1. Demonstrating Conformance
      2. 7.2. The Current Framework for Certification
      3. 7.3. Self-Certification (Including Some Independent Assessment)
      4. 7.4. Preparing for Assessment
      5. 7.5. Summary
  11. Part B. Specific Industry Sectors
    1. Chapter 8. Second Tier Documents—Process, Oil and Gas Industries
      1. 8.1. IEC International Standard 61511: Functional Safety—Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector (Second Edition to be Published in 2016)
      2. 8.2. Institution of Gas Engineers and Managers IGEM/SR/15: Programmable Equipment in Safety-Related Applications—5th Edition 2010
      3. 8.3. Guide to the Application of IEC 61511 to Safety Instrumented Systems in the UK Process Industries
      4. 8.4. ANSI/ISA-84.00.01 (2004)—Functional Safety, Instrumented Systems for the Process Sector
      5. 8.5. Recommended Guidelines for the Application of IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 in the Petroleum Activities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf OLF-070—Rev 2, 2004
      6. 8.6. Energy Institute: Guidance on Safety Integrity Level (SIL) Determination, Expected to be Published 2016
    2. Chapter 9. Machinery Sector
      1. 9.1. EN ISO 12100:2010
      2. 9.2. EN ISO 13849
      3. 9.3. BS EN 62061
      4. 9.4. BS EN ISO 13850: 2015 Safety of Machinery—Emergency Stop—Principles for Design
    3. Chapter 10. Other Industry Sectors
      1. 10.1. Rail
      2. 10.2. UK MOD Documents
      3. 10.3. Earth Moving Machinery
      4. 10.4. Coding Standard
      5. 10.5. Automotive
      6. 10.6. Nuclear
      7. 10.7. Avionics
      8. 10.8. Medical—IEC 60601 Medical Electrical Equipment, General Requirements for Basic Safety and Essential Performance 2014
      9. 10.9. Stage and Theatrical Equipment
      10. 10.10. Electrical Power Drives
      11. 10.11. Energy Institute (See also Section 8.6)
  12. Part C. Case Studies in the Form of Exercises and Examples
    1. Chapter 11. Pressure Control System (Exercise)
      1. 11.1. The Unprotected System
      2. 11.2. Protection System
      3. 11.3. Assumptions
      4. 11.4. Reliability Block Diagram
      5. 11.5. Failure Rate Data
      6. 11.6. Quantifying the Model
      7. 11.7. Proposed Design and Maintenance Modifications
      8. 11.8. Modeling CCF (Pressure Transmitters)
      9. 11.9. Quantifying the Revised Model
      10. 11.10. ALARP
      11. 11.11. Architectural Constraints
    2. Chapter 12. Burner Control Assessment (Example)
      1. Safety Integrity Study of a Proposed Replacement Boiler Controller
      2. 12.1. Objectives
      3. 12.2. Integrity Requirements
      4. 12.3. Assumptions
      5. 12.4. Results
      6. 12.5. Failure Rate Data
      7. 12.6. References
    3. Chapter 13. SIL Targeting—Some Practical Examples
      1. 13.1. A Problem Involving EUC/SRS Independence
      2. 13.2. A Hand-held Alarm Intercom, Involving Human Error in the Mitigation
      3. 13.3. Maximum Tolerable Failure Rate Involving Alternative Propagations to Fatality
      4. 13.4. Hot/cold Water Mixer Integrity
      5. 13.5. Scenario Involving High Temperature Gas to a Vessel
      6. 13.6. LOPA Examples
    4. Chapter 14. Hypothetical Rail Train Braking System (Example)
      1. 14.1. The Systems
      2. 14.2. The SIL Targets
      3. 14.3. Assumptions
      4. 14.4. Failure Rate Data
      5. 14.5. Reliability Models
      6. 14.6. Overall Safety-Integrity
    5. Chapter 15. Rotorcraft Accidents and Risk Assessment
      1. 15.1. Helicopter Incidents
      2. 15.2. Floatation Equipment Risk Assessment
    6. Chapter 16. Hydroelectric Dam and Tidal Gates
      1. 16.1. Flood Gate Control System
      2. 16.2. Spurious Opening of Either of Two Tidal Lock Gates Involving a Trapped Vessel
  13. Appendix 1. Functional Safety Management
  14. Appendix 2. Assessment Schedule
  15. Appendix 3. BETAPLUS CCF Model, Scoring Criteria
  16. Appendix 4. Assessing Safe Failure Fraction and Diagnostic Coverage
  17. Appendix 5. Answers to Examples
  18. Appendix 6. References
  19. Appendix 7. Quality and Safety Plan
  20. Appendix 8. Some Terms and Jargon of IEC 61508
  21. Advertisement
  22. Index