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The Ruby Programming Language

Cover of The Ruby Programming Language by Yukihiro Matsumoto... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. The Ruby Programming Language
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    3. Preface
      1. Acknowledgments
      2. Conventions Used in This Book
      3. Using Code Examples
      4. How to Contact Us
      5. Safari® Enabled
    4. 1. Introduction
      1. A Tour of Ruby
      2. Try Ruby
      3. About This Book
      4. A Sudoku Solver in Ruby
    5. 2. The Structure and Execution of Ruby Programs
      1. Lexical Structure
      2. Syntactic Structure
      3. File Structure
      4. Program Encoding
      5. Program Execution
    6. 3. Datatypes and Objects
      1. Numbers
      2. Text
      3. Arrays
      4. Hashes
      5. Ranges
      6. Symbols
      7. True, False, and Nil
      8. Objects
    7. 4. Expressions and Operators
      1. Literals and Keyword Literals
      2. Variable References
      3. Constant References
      4. Method Invocations
      5. Assignments
      6. Operators
    8. 5. Statements and Control Structures
      1. Conditionals
      2. Loops
      3. Iterators and Enumerable Objects
      4. Blocks
      5. Altering Control Flow
      6. Exceptions and Exception Handling
      7. BEGIN and END
      8. Threads, Fibers, and Continuations
    9. 6. Methods, Procs, Lambdas, and Closures
      1. Defining Simple Methods
      2. Method Names
      3. Methods and Parentheses
      4. Method Arguments
      5. Procs and Lambdas
      6. Closures
      7. Method Objects
      8. Functional Programming
    10. 7. Classes and Modules
      1. Defining a Simple Class
      2. Method Visibility: Public, Protected, Private
      3. Subclassing and Inheritance
      4. Object Creation and Initialization
      5. Modules
      6. Loading and Requiring Modules
      7. Singleton Methods and the Eigenclass
      8. Method Lookup
      9. Constant Lookup
    11. 8. Reflection and Metaprogramming
      1. Types, Classes, and Modules
      2. Evaluating Strings and Blocks
      3. Variables and Constants
      4. Methods
      5. Hooks
      6. Tracing
      7. ObjectSpace and GC
      8. Custom Control Structures
      9. Missing Methods and Missing Constants
      10. Dynamically Creating Methods
      11. Alias Chaining
      12. Domain-Specific Languages
    12. 9. The Ruby Platform
      1. Strings
      2. Regular Expressions
      3. Numbers and Math
      4. Dates and Times
      5. Collections
      6. Files and Directories
      7. Input/Output
      8. Networking
      9. Threads and Concurrency
    13. 10. The Ruby Environment
      1. Invoking the Ruby Interpreter
      2. The Top-Level Environment
      3. Practical Extraction and Reporting Shortcuts
      4. Calling the OS
      5. Security
    14. Index
    15. About the Authors
    16. Colophon
    17. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Methods

The Object and Module classes define a number of methods for listing, querying, invoking, and defining methods. We’ll consider each category in turn.

Listing and Testing For Methods

Object defines methods for listing the names of methods defined on the object. These methods return arrays of methods names. Those name are strings in Ruby 1.8 and symbols in Ruby 1.9:

o = "a string"
o.methods                # => [ names of all public methods ]
o.public_methods         # => the same thing
o.public_methods(false)  # Exclude inherited methods
o.protected_methods      # => []: there aren't any
o.private_methods        # => array of all private methods
o.private_methods(false) # Exclude inherited private methods
def o.single; 1; end     # Define a singleton method
o.singleton_methods      # => ["single"] (or [:single] in 1.9)

It is also possible to query a class for the methods it defines rather than querying an instance of the class. The following methods are defined by Module. Like the Object methods, they return arrays of strings in Ruby 1.8 and arrays of symbols in 1.9:

String.instance_methods == "s".public_methods                # => true
String.instance_methods(false) == "s".public_methods(false)  # => true
String.public_instance_methods == String.instance_methods    # => true
String.protected_instance_methods       # => []
String.private_instance_methods(false)  # => ["initialize_copy",
                                        #     "initialize"]

Recall that the class methods of a class or module are singleton methods of the Class or Module object. So to list class methods, use Object.singleton_methods ...

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