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The RF in RFID

Book Description

This book explains how UHF tags and readers communicate wirelessly. It gives an understanding of what limits the read range of a tag, how to increase it (and why that might result in breaking the law), and the practical things that need to be addressed when designing and implementing RFID technology. Avoiding heavy math but giving breadth of coverage with the right amount of detail, it is an ideal introduction to radio communications for engineers who need insight into how tags and readers work.

New to this edition:

• Examples of near-metal antenna techniques

• Discussion of the wakeup challenge for battery-assisted tags, with a BAT architecture example

• Latest development of protocols: EPC Gen 1.2.0

• Update 18000-6 discussion with battery-assisted tags, sensor tags, Manchester tags and wakeup provisions



  • Named a 2012 Notable Computer Book for Computer Systems Organization by Computing Reviews
  • The only book to give an understanding of radio communications, the underlying technology for radio frequency identification (RFID)
  • Praised for its readability and clarity, it balances breadth and depth of coverage
  • New edition includes latest developments in chip technology, antennas and protocols

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 What, When, and Where, Wirelessly
    2. 1.2 Why Would You Read This Book?
    3. 1.3 What Comes Next?
    4. Acknowledgements
    5. Further Reading
  6. Chapter 2. History and Practice of RFID
    1. 2.1 It All Started with IFF
    2. 2.2 Making It Cheap
    3. 2.3 Making and Selling: Tracking Big Stuff
    4. 2.4 Tracking Small Stuff: AutoID and the Web of Things
    5. 2.5 RFID Systems and Terminology
    6. 2.6 Types of RFID
    7. 2.7 The Internet of Things and UHF RFID
    8. Further Reading
    9. Exercises
  7. Chapter 3. Radio Basics for UHF RFID
    1. 3.1 Electromagnetic Waves
    2. 3.2 Describing Signal Voltage and Power
    3. 3.3 Information, Modulation, and Multiplexing
    4. 3.4 Backscatter Radio Links
    5. 3.5 Link Budgets
    6. 3.6 Effect of Antenna Gain and Polarization on Range
    7. 3.7 Adding a Battery
    8. 3.8 Propagation in the Real World
    9. 3.9 Capsule Summary: Chapter 3
    10. Further Reading
    11. Exercises
  8. Chapter 4. UHF RFID Readers
    1. 4.1 A Radio’s Days (And Nights)
    2. 4.2 Radio Architectures
    3. 4.3 Radio Components
    4. 4.4 RFID Transmitters
    5. 4.5 RFID Receivers
    6. 4.6 Digital-Analog Conversion and Signal Processing
    7. 4.7 Packaging and Power
    8. 4.8 Capsule Summary
    9. Further Reading
    10. Exercises
  9. Chapter 5. UHF RFID Tags
    1. 5.1 Power and Powerlessness
    2. 5.2 RF to DC
    3. 5.3 Getting Started, Getting Data
    4. 5.4 Talking Back
    5. 5.5 Tag IC Overall Design Challenges
    6. 5.6 Packaging: No Small Matter
    7. 5.7 Other Passive Ways
    8. 5.8 Assault of the Battery
    9. 5.9 Capsule Summary
    10. Further Reading
    11. Exercises
  10. Chapter 6. Reader Antennas
    1. 6.1 Not Just for Insects Anymore
    2. 6.2 Current Events: Fundamentals of Antenna Operation
    3. 6.3 Antennas for Fixed Readers
    4. 6.4 Antennas for Handheld or Portable Readers
    5. 6.5 Near-Field Antennas
    6. 6.6 Cables and Connectors
    7. 6.7 Capsule Summary
    8. 6.8 Afterword: An Electron’s Eyelash
    9. Further Reading
    10. Exercises
  11. Chapter 7. Tag Antennas
    1. 7.1 World to Tag, Tag to World
    2. 7.2 Impedance Matching and Power Transfer
    3. 7.3 Dipoles and Derivatives
    4. 7.4 Tags and the (local) Environment
    5. 7.5 Near-field and Hybrid Tag Antennas
    6. 7.6 Capsule Summary
    7. Further Reading
    8. Exercises
  12. Chapter 8. UHF RFID Protocols
    1. 8.1 What a Protocol Droid Should Know
    2. 8.2 Days of Yore
    3. 8.3 EPCglobal Generation 1
    4. 8.4 ISO 18000-6B (Intellitag)
    5. 8.5 ISO 18000-6C (EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2)
    6. 8.6 ISO 18000-6 Extensions
    7. 8.7 Active Device Protocols
    8. 8.8 Capsule Summary
    9. Further Reading
    10. Exercises
  13. Chapter 9. RFID Applications
    1. 9.1 What Is It All for?
    2. 9.2 Old Tricks
    3. 9.3 Plus Ç’est La Même Chose
    4. 9.4 New Capabilities
    5. 9.5 Things to Keep in Mind: Makers
    6. 9.6 Things to Keep in Mind: Users
    7. 9.7 Silly But Fun
    8. 9.8 Capsule Summary
    9. Further Reading
    10. Exercises
  14. Afterword
  15. Appendix 1: Radio Regulations
    1. A1.1 Couldn’t Wait for Global Warming
    2. A1.2 FCC Part 15
    3. A1.3 European Standards
    4. A1.4 Those Other Few Billion Folks
  16. Appendix 2: Harmonic Functions
    1. A2.1 Sines and Cosines
    2. A2.2 Complex Numbers and Complex Exponentials
  17. Appendix 3: Resistance, Impedance and Switching
    1. A3.1 Electric Company Detective Sherlock Ohms
    2. A3.2 Resistance is Useless?
    3. A3.3 Switching
  18. Appendix 4: Reflection and Matching
    1. A4.1 Reflection Coefficients
    2. A4.2 A Simple (But Relevant) Matching Example
  19. Index