Ubiquitous Artificial Intelligence
I N TODAY’S WORLD, THE MAGIC OF AI IS EVERYWHERE – MAYBE IT’S NOT “FULL AI” but there are significant parts. Allen Newell foresaw these bits and pieces as part of an “enchanted land.” In an address given in 1976, he called computers the “technology of enchantment.” He noted two ingredients that made it so:1
First, it is the technology of how to apply knowledge to action to achieve goals. . . . That is what algorithms and programs are all about – frozen action to be thawed when needed.
The second ingredient is the miniaturization of the physical systems that have this ability for intelligent action.
Thus, computer technology differs from all other technologies precisely in providing the capability for an enchanted ...