Understanding Queries and Signals
19.1 The Setting
Up until about the mid-1970s, DARPA managers were able to cushion the impact of the Mansfield Amendment (which required that Defense Department research be relevant to military needs) by describing computer research programs in a way that emphasized applications. Larry Roberts, the Director of DARPA’s IPTO during the late 1960s and early 1970s, wrote1
The Mansfield Amendment created a particular problem during my stay at DARPA. It forced us to generate considerable paperwork and to have to defend things on a different basis. It made us have more development work compared to the research work in order to get a mix such that we could defend it. I don’t think I had to drop a project in our group ...