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The Quest for Artificial Intelligence by Nils J. Nilsson

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11

Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

FOR A SYSTEM TO BE INTELLIGENT, IT MUST HAVE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ITS WORLD and the means to draw conclusions from, or at least act on, that knowledge. Humans and machines alike therefore must have ways to represent this needed knowledge in internal structures, whether encoded in protein or silicon. Cognitive scientists and AI researchers distinguish between two main ways in which knowledge is represented: procedural and declarative. In animals, the knowledge needed to perform a skilled action, such as hitting a tennis ball, is called procedural because it is encoded directly in the neural circuits that coordinate and control that specific action. Analogously, automatic landing systems in aircraft contain ...

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