CLUES ABOUT WHAT MIGHT BE NEEDED TO MAKE MACHINES INTELLIGENT ARE scattered abundantly throughout philosophy, logic, biology, psychology, statistics, and engineering. With gradually increasing intensity, people set about to exploit clues from these areas in their separate quests to automate some aspects of intelligence. I begin my story by describing some of these clues and how they inspired some of the first achievements in artificial intelligence.
2.1 From Philosophy and Logic
Although people had reasoned logically for millennia, it was the Greek philosopher Aristotle who first tried to analyze and codify the process. Aristotle identified a type of reasoning he called the syllogism “. . . in which, certain things being stated, something ...