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The Process of Investigation, 4th Edition

Book Description

The Process of Investigation,Fourth Edition addresses the needs of today’s private sector investigative professional by providing a full-spectrum treatment of the investigative process, from case inception and investigative strategy selection to executing complex investigative techniques, to creating reports useful for corporate, legal, and prosecutorial purposes. Continuing in the tradition of its previous editions, The Process of Investigation, Fourth Edition covers essential topics overlooked in books on the public aspects of investigation. Investigative skills such as surveillance techniques, interviewing and interrogation, collecting and documenting evidence, and taking confessions and written statements are all discussed, and supplemented with updated case studies and examples from the authors’ own professional experiences.



  • Teaches the fundamentals of the investigative process and serves as a valuable reference tool for both the student and the professional
  • Experienced professionals can brush up on seldom-used specialty skills, and reconsider existing methods and approaches
  • Includes a new chapter on discrimination investigations

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. About the Authors
  9. Part I. Fundamentals of Security Investigation
    1. Chapter 1. The Investigative Process
      1. Two Categories of Investigation
      2. The Investigative Process
      3. The Creative Process in Investigation
    2. Chapter 2. A Comparison of Public and Private Sectors
      1. Source of Authority and Funding
      2. Sources of Information
      3. Job Security
      4. Scope of Work
      5. Image
      6. Civil Liability
      7. Training and Education
      8. Technical Resources
      9. Professionalism
      10. Career Paths
      11. Assistance
      12. Personal Achievement
      13. Overlapping Missions
      14. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 3. Qualities of the Investigator
      1. Powers of Observation
      2. Resourcefulness
      3. Patience
      4. Interacting With People
      5. Understanding of Human Behavior
      6. Understanding Legal Implications
      7. Effective Communication Skills
      8. Receptivity
      9. Sense of Well-Being
      10. Dedication to the Work
      11. Self-Initiative
      12. Healthy Skepticism
      13. Intuition
      14. Energy and Stamina
      15. Acting Skills
      16. Good Judgment
      17. Logic
      18. Intelligence
      19. Creative Imagination
      20. Good Character
      21. Sense of Professionalism
      22. A Self-Quiz
      23. True Success
    4. Chapter 4. Managing the Investigative Function
      1. The Manager as Investigative Counselor
      2. The Manager as Trainer
      3. The Manager as Controller
      4. The Manager as Motivator
      5. The Manager as Evaluator
  10. Part II. Methods of Security Investigation
    1. Chapter 5. Undercover Investigations
      1. Techniques and Methods
      2. Problem Areas
      3. The Absence of Professionalism
      4. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 6. Surveillance
      1. Covert Versus Overt Surveillance
      2. The Stationary Surveillance
      3. The Moving Surveillance
      4. Moving And Stationary Surveillance
      5. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 7. Background Investigations
      1. Workplace Violence
      2. The Application Package
      3. Post-Hire Screening
    4. Chapter 8. Discovering Covert Crimes
      1. Deployment of Undercover Agents
      2. Shoplifting Surveillance
  11. Part III. Building a Case
    1. Chapter 9. Interviews and Interrogations
      1. Interviewing
      2. Interrogation
      3. Preparing for the Interrogation
      4. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 10. An Overview of the Interview and Interrogation Process
      1. Demeanor
      2. Rapport
      3. Interview and Interrogation
      4. Conducting the Interview
      5. Selling the Interview
      6. Statement Analysis—The Untainted Story
      7. Fact Gathering
      8. Lifestyle Interviews
      9. Cognitive Interviewing
      10. Common Interviewer Errors
      11. Behavioral Interviewing
      12. Diagrams
      13. Interrogation
      14. Decision to Confess
      15. Rationalization
      16. Denials
      17. Methods of Interrogation
      18. Documenting the Confession or the Interview
      19. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 11. Evidence
      1. Demonstrative Evidence
      2. Documentary Evidence
      3. Some Rules and Definitions of Evidence
      4. A Final Word about Evidence
    4. Chapter 12. Written Statements, Admissions, and Confessions
      1. Written Statements
      2. Allowable Uses of Statements
      3. Historical Background
      4. Types of Constraints
      5. Confessions and Admissions
      6. The Written Admission
      7. Videotaped Confessions
      8. Value of the Confession
    5. Chapter 13. The Use of Informants
      1. Professional Contacts
      2. Informants
      3. The Anonymous Informant
      4. Informant Control Stages
      5. Maximizing Potential for Controlled Informant Recruitment
      6. Unexpected Dividends
      7. Treatment of Informants
      8. The Need for Corroboration
    6. Chapter 14. Report Writing and Note Taking
      1. Defining the Investigative Report
      2. Narrative Reports
      3. Structured or Formalized Reports
      4. Note Taking
      5. Large Case Report Format
      6. Summary
  12. Part IV. Applying Investigative Strategies
    1. Chapter 15. Problems Arise: The <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">What</span> of Investigation of Investigation
    2. Chapter 16. Crime and Solution: The <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">How</span> of Investigation of Investigation
      1. Scientific Detection Methods
      2. How was it Accomplished? (Commission Strategy)
      3. How can the Crime be Solved? (Solution Strategy)
      4. The Modus Operandi
      5. Selecting the Solution Strategy
    3. Chapter 17. Identifying Suspects: The <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">Who</span> of Investigation of Investigation
      1. The Process of Elimination
      2. Reading the Physical Evidence
      3. The Investigative Interview
      4. Combining Techniques
      5. Summary
    4. Chapter 18. Finding Information: The <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">Where</span> of Investigation of Investigation
      1. Sources of Information in the Private Sector
      2. Directories and Periodicals
      3. Information Sources in Local Government
      4. Information Sources in State Government
      5. Other Sources
    5. Chapter 19. The Time Factor: The <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">When</span> of Investigation of Investigation
      1. Methods of Establishing Time
      2. How to Pre-Establish Time
    6. Chapter 20. Establishing Motive: The <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">Why</span> of Investigation of Investigation
      1. Motivation and Detection Strategy
      2. Motives for Theft
      3. Motive and Response
      4. Summary
  13. Part V. Technological and Specialized Investigative Techniques
    1. Chapter 21. Imagery
      1. Photography and Equipment
      2. Scene Documentation
      3. The Future of Investigative Photography
    2. Chapter 22. Computers in Private Sector Investigations
      1. A Changing Investigator’s World
      2. Computers as Investigative Tools
      3. Computers as Objects Of Evidence
      4. Computers as Tools
      5. Computers as Objects of Evidence
      6. A Final Note on Cybercrime
    3. Chapter 23. Targeted Violence Investigations
      1. Types of Workplace Violence
      2. Significance of Workplace Violence
      3. A Common Mistake
      4. Threats
      5. A Threat in the Warehouse
      6. The Long View
    4. Chapter 24. Discrimination Investigations
      1. Discrimination and Harassment
  14. Index