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The Power of the 2 × 2 Matrix: Using 2 × 2 Thinking to Solve Business Problems and Make Better Decisions

Book Description

Consultants, managers, MBA students all utilize a representational tool referred to as the "2 × 2 matrix", the most flexible and portable weapon in the knowledge worker's intellectual arsenal. This book is a single, integrated resource for reviewing, selecting, and deploying the best 2 x 2 framework for a specific situation.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. FOREWORD
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  4. THE AUTHORS
  5. INTRODUCTION
    1. WHAT IS 2 × 2 THINKING?
    2. FROM 2 × 2 THINKING TO MANAGING DILEMMAS
    3. ISN'T THIS OBVIOUS AND SIMPLE?
    4. HOW THE BOOK IS ORGANIZED
    5. A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION
  6. I. 2 × 2 THINKING
    1. 1. THE DNA OF GREAT PROBLEM SOLVING
      1. 1.1. 2 × 2 THINKING: A COMMON PATH TO EXTRAORDINARY ENDS
      2. 1.2. AT THE FEET OF MASTERS
      3. 1.3. THE PROBLEM-SOLVING MIND
      4. 1.4. STRATEGIC, ORGANIZATIONAL, AND INDIVIDUAL APPLICATIONS
        1. 1.4.1. Strategic Frameworks
        2. 1.4.2. Organizational Frameworks
        3. 1.4.3. Individual Frameworks
      5. 1.5. TRANSCENDENCE
    2. 2. Form, Method, and Mastery: 2 × 2 Thinking as Dialectical Process
      1. 2.1. FORM: THE HUMBLE 2 × 2 MATRIX
      2. 2.2. METHOD: A UNIVERSAL PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH
      3. 2.3. MASTERY: WISDOM IN ACTION
        1. 2.3.1. Principle 1: Creative Tension
        2. 2.3.2. Principle 2: Opposition
        3. 2.3.3. Principle 3: Iteration
        4. 2.3.4. Principle 4: Integrity
        5. 2.3.5. Principle 5: Transcendence
      4. 2.4. THE SWEET SPOT: ALIGNING FORM, METHOD, AND MASTERY WITH THE ARCHETYPES
    3. 3. The Eight Archetypal Dilemmas
      1. 3.1. HEAD AND HEART
        1. 3.1.1. Classic Head and Heart
      2. 3.2. INSIDE AND OUTSIDE
        1. 3.2.1. Classic Inside and Outside
      3. 3.3. COST-BENEFIT
        1. 3.3.1. Classic Cost-Benefit
      4. 3.4. PRODUCT AND MARKET
        1. 3.4.1. Classic Product and Market
      5. 3.5. CHANGE AND STABILITY
        1. 3.5.1. Classic Change and Stability
      6. 3.6. KNOW AND DON'T KNOW
        1. 3.6.1. Classic Know–Don't Know
      7. 3.7. COMPETING PRIORITIES
        1. 3.7.1. Classic Competing Priorities
      8. 3.8. CONTENT AND PROCESS
        1. 3.8.1. Classic Content and Process
      9. 3.9. A MODERN PARABLE: APPLYING THE ARCHETYPES
  7. II. 2 × 2 PRACTICE
    1. 4. Designing 2 × 2 Matrices: Making Intuition Explicit
      1. 4.1. UNDERLYING DESIGN LOGIC
        1. 4.1.1. Initiation
        2. 4.1.2. Naming
        3. 4.1.3. Testing
          1. 4.1.3.1. Relevance and Coverage
          2. 4.1.3.2. Difference
          3. 4.1.3.3. Dialectical Tension
      2. 4.2. METHOD
        1. 4.2.1. Step 1: Acknowledge
        2. 4.2.2. Step 2: Envision the End State
        3. 4.2.3. Step 3: Catalogue
        4. 4.2.4. Step 4: Organize
        5. 4.2.5. Step 5: Prioritize
        6. 4.2.6. Step 6: Design
        7. 4.2.7. Step 7: Name
        8. 4.2.8. Step 8: Proof
    2. 5. 2 × 2 Thinking in Action: Fujitsu FTXS Tackles Level 2 Dilemmas
      1. 5.1. FUJITSU TRANSACTION SOLUTIONS
      2. 5.2. FACING THE LEVEL 1 DILEMMA
      3. 5.3. FINDING THE LEVEL 2 DILEMMA
      4. 5.4. THE TEAM GOES TO WORK
        1. 5.4.1. Step 1: Issues and Challenges
          1. 5.4.1.1. Symptoms Identification
          2. 5.4.1.2. Perceptual Industry Maps
        2. 5.4.2. Step 2: Core Dilemma Definition
        3. 5.4.3. Step 3: Modeling and Analysis
        4. 5.4.4. Step 4: Gap Analysis
        5. 5.4.5. Step 5: Resolution Planning
      5. 5.5. EPILOGUE
  8. III. 2 × 2 FRAMEWORKS INVENTORY
    1. 6. Strategic Frameworks
      1. 6.1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRATEGY
      2. 6.2. STRATEGY IN THE 2 × 2 CONTEXT
      3. 6.3. CUSTOMER NEEDS FRAMEWORKS
        1. 6.3.1. Beyond Customer Led: Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad
        2. 6.3.2. References
        3. 6.3.3. Discontinuity and the Life Cycle: Geoffrey Moore and Paul Wiefels
        4. 6.3.4. References
        5. 6.3.5. Customer as Value Manager: Alex Lowy and Natalie Klym
        6. 6.3.6. Reference
        7. 6.3.7. Customer Value Analysis: Bradley Gale
        8. 6.3.8. Reference
      4. 6.4. STRATEGIC CONTEXT FRAMEWORKS
        1. 6.4.1. Scenarios: Adapted from Global Business Network
        2. 6.4.2. References
        3. 6.4.3. Gartner Magic Quadrant: Gartner Group
        4. 6.4.4. Reference
        5. 6.4.5. Portfolio Analysis: Nancy Brown
        6. 6.4.6. Problems and Solutions: Watts Wacker and Jim Taylor
        7. 6.4.7. Reference
        8. 6.4.8. Dialectical SWOT Analysis: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats: Inspired by the East Lancashire Training and Enterprise Council
        9. 6.4.9. Reference
        10. 6.4.9. Market Tipping: Adapted from Carl Shapiro and Hal Varian
        11. 6.5.1. Reference
      5. 6.5. STRATEGIC OPTIONS FRAMEWORKS
        1. 6.5.2. Corporate Strategy: H. Igor Ansoff
        2. 6.5.3. References
        3. 6.5.4. Generic Strategy: Adapted from the work of Michael Porter
        4. 6.5.5. References
        5. 6.5.6. E-Business Opportunity Matrix: Andy De and Alex Lowy
        6. 6.5.7. Reference
        7. 6.5.8. Global Product Planning: Warren Keegan
        8. 6.5.9. Reference
        9. 6.5.10. Generic Network Strategy: Carl Shapiro and Hal Varian
        10. 6.6.1. Reference
      6. 6.6. MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS FRAMEWORKS
        1. 6.6.2. Mass Customization: The Four Approaches: B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore
        2. 6.6.3. References
        3. 6.6.4. Attentionscape: Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck
        4. 6.6.5. Reference
        5. 6.6.6. Managing Customer Loyalty: Werner Reinartz and V. Kumar
        6. 6.6.7. Reference
        7. 6.6.8. Likelihood to Buy: Simon Majaro
        8. 6.6.9. Reference
      7. 6.7. RISK FRAMEWORKS
        1. 6.7.1. Revenue and Profitability: Adapted from Adrian Slywotzky and David Morrison
        2. 6.7.2. Reference
        3. 6.7.3. BCG: Product Portfolio Matrix: Bruce Hendersen
        4. 6.7.4. References
        5. 6.7.5. Impact-Uncertainty Matrix: Adapted by William Ralston
        6. 6.7.6. Reference
        7. 6.7.7. Entrance and Exit Strategies: Robert Hayes and Steven Wheelwright
        8. 6.7.8. Reference
    2. 7. Organizational Frameworks
      1. 7.1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY
      2. 7.2. A 2 × 2 VIEW OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
      3. 7.3. STRUCTURE FRAMEWORKS
        1. 7.3.1. Good to Great Matrix of Creative Discipline: Jim Collins
        2. 7.3.2. Reference
        3. 7.3.3. Employee Motivation: Inspired by Frederick Herzberg
        4. 7.3.4. References
        5. 7.3.5. Alliance Drivers: John Harbison and Peter Pekar Jr.
        6. 7.3.6. Reference
        7. 7.3.7. Team Types: Kimball Fisher
        8. 7.3.8. References
      4. 7.4. LEADERSHIP AND CULTURE FRAMEWORKS
        1. 7.4.1. Situational Leadership: Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard
        2. 7.4.2. Reference
        3. 7.4.3. The Four Power Players in Knowledge Organizations: Karl-Erik Sveiby
        4. 7.4.4. Reference
        5. 7.4.5. T-Group Leadership: Richard Nelson-Jones
        6. 7.4.6. Reference
      5. 7.5. LEARNING AND CHANGE FRAMEWORKS
        1. 7.5.1. SECI: Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi
        2. 7.5.2. References
        3. 7.5.3. Human Capital: Tom Stewart
        4. 7.5.4. References
        5. 7.5.5. Differentiation and Integration: Jamshid Gharajedaghi
        6. 7.5.6. Reference
        7. 7.5.7. Means and Ends: Russell Ackoff
        8. 7.5.8. References
        9. 7.5.9. The Change Grid: Elizabeth Kübler-Ross
        10. 7.5.10. References
        11. 7.5.11. Learning and Change: Hubert Saint-Onge
        12. 7.5.12. Reference
        13. 7.5.13. Similarities and Differences: Jamshid Gharajedaghi
        14. 7.5.14. References
      6. 7.6. PROCESS FRAMEWORKS
        1. 7.6.1. The Four Realms of Experience: B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore
        2. 7.6.2. Reference
        3. 7.6.3. Make versus Buy: Charles H. Fine
        4. 7.6.4. Reference
        5. 7.6.5. Four Square Model: Bob Johansen
        6. 7.6.6. Reference
        7. 7.6.7. Product and Supply Chain Architecture: Adapted from Charles H. Fine
        8. 7.6.8. Reference
        9. 7.6.9. Telematics Framework: Bill Buxton
        10. 7.6.10. Reference
        11. 7.6.11. The Virtue Matrix: Adapted from the Aspen Institute and Roger Martin
        12. 7.6.12. Reference
    3. 8. Individual Frameworks
      1. 8.1. HISTORY OF INDIVIDUAL WORK: THE DANCE BETWEEN SPECIALIZATION AND GENERALIZATION
      2. 8.2. THE INDIVIDUAL IN A 2 × 2 CONTEXT
      3. 8.3. PERSONAL AWARENESS AND STYLE FRAMEWORKS
        1. 8.3.1. Johari Window: Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham
        2. 8.3.2. References
        3. 8.3.3. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Isabel Briggs Myers and Katherine Briggs
        4. 8.3.4. References
        5. 8.3.5. Learning Styles Inventory: David Kolb
        6. 8.3.6. References
        7. 8.3.7. I'm OK, You're OK: The Four Life Positions: Thomas Harris
        8. 8.3.8. References
        9. 8.3.9. Conflict Mode: Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmann
        10. 8.3.10. Reference
      4. 8.4. PROFESSIONAL EFFECTIVENESS FRAMEWORKS
        1. 8.4.1. Social Styles: David Merrill and Roger Reid
        2. 8.4.2. References
        3. 8.4.3. Getting It Right: Peter Drucker
        4. 8.4.4. Reference
        5. 8.4.5. Leadership Coaching: Bryan Smith and Rick Ross
        6. 8.4.6. Reference
        7. 8.4.7. Career Transitioning: Based on the work of Richard Nelson Bolles
        8. 8.4.8. Reference
      5. 8.5. DECISION-MAKING FRAMEWORKS
        1. 8.5.1. Prisoner's Dilemma: Merrill Flood and Melvin Drescher
        2. 8.5.2. References
        3. 8.5.3. Urgency and Importance: Stephen Covey
        4. 8.5.4. References
        5. 8.5.5. Influence and Concern: Stephen Covey
        6. 8.5.6. Reference
    4. NOTES
      1. Foreword
      2. Chapter One
      3. Chapter Two
      4. Chapter Three
      5. Chapter Six
      6. Chapter Seven
      7. Chapter Eight