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The Physics of Deformation and Fracture of Polymers by Ali Argon

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6 Rubber elasticity

6.1 Overview

Rubbers are composed of freely jointed long-chain polymer molecules, cross linked by intermolecular junctions creating 3D networks existing above the glass-transition temperature. This cross-linked character of freely jointed links as chains gives rubbers very high shear compliance with shear moduli only in the range of several MPa, while in volumetric response rubbers are quite stiff with bulk moduli in the range of GPa. Thus, rubbers act like captured liquids in which links on chains are in thermal motion much like in liquids. The cross links between molecules permit the distorted rubber to recover its initial shape when external forces are removed.

Under no applied stress the segments on molecules, viewed ...

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