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The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors by John H. Davies

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QUANTUM WELLS ANDLOW-DIMENSIONALSYSTEMS

Real electrons are three-dimensional but can be made to behave as though they are only free to move in fewer dimensions. This can be achieved by trapping them in a narrow potential well that restricts their motion in one dimension to discrete energy levels. If the separation between these energy levels is large enough, the electrons will appear to be frozen into the ground state and no motion will be possible in this dimension. The result is a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The same effect can be achieved with a two-dimensional potential well, which leaves the electrons free to move in one dimension ...

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