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The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors by John H. Davies

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INTRODUCTION

Low-dimensional systems have revolutionized semiconductor physics. They rely on the technology of heterostructures, where the composition of a semiconductor can be changed on the scale of a nanometre. For example, a sandwich of GaAs between two layers of AlxGa1−x As acts like an elementary quantum well. The energy levels are widely separated if the well is narrow, and all electrons may be trapped in the lowest level. Motion parallel to the layers is not affected, however, so the electrons remain free in those directions. The result is a two-dimensional electron gas, and holes can be trapped in the same way.

Optical measurements provide ...

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