You are previewing The Open Source Alternative: Understanding Risks and Leveraging Opportunities.
O'Reilly logo
The Open Source Alternative: Understanding Risks and Leveraging Opportunities

Book Description

This book is a user manual for understanding and deployment of open source software licensing in business. Written for lawyers and businesspeople alike, it explains and analyzes open source licensing issues, and gives practical suggestions on how to deal with open source licensing in a business context. Including useful forms, information, and both technical and licensing background, this book will help you avoid legal pitfalls and edcuate your organization about the risks of open source.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. How to Use this Book
  3. 1. Leveraging Opportunities
    1. 1. Introduction: How UNIX Gave Birth to Linux, and a New Software Paradigm
      1. 1.1. In the Beginning Was the Word, and the Word Was Unix
      2. 1.2. Along Comes Linux
      3. 1.3. Now, What is Open Source?
      4. 1.4. And This is Just the Beginning
    2. 2. Free Software and Open Source
      1. 2.1. Viruses and Freedoms
      2. 2.2. Philosophy of Free Software
        1. 2.2.1. Open Source Initiative
        2. 2.2.2. Mozilla Foundation
        3. 2.2.3. Linus Torvalds
      3. 2.3. Definitions: Free Software and Open Source
      4. 2.4. What'S in a Name? The Viral and the Nonviral
      5. 2.5. Open Source Development Model
    3. 3. Common Open Source Licenses and Their Structure
      1. 3.1. Direct Licensing
      2. 3.2. GPL
      3. 3.3. GPL + Exception (or Special Exception)
      4. 3.4. GPL + FLOSS Exception
      5. 3.5. LGPL
      6. 3.6. Corporate Hereditary Software Licenses
      7. 3.7. Other Hereditary Software Licenses
      8. 3.8. Permissive Licenses
        1. 3.8.1. Apache 1.0
        2. 3.8.2. Apache 1.1
        3. 3.8.3. Apache 2.0
        4. 3.8.4. Artistic License
      9. 3.9. Miscellaneous Licenses
      10. 3.10. Non-Software Licenses
    4. 4. Due Diligence, License Proliferation, and Compatibility
      1. 4.1. What is the Problem with Combining Software?
      2. 4.2. What is Due Diligence?
      3. 4.3. License Conditions and Diligence Problems
        1. 4.3.1. Distribution of Executable Versions.
      4. 4.4. License Compatibility
      5. 4.5. Choices in an Incompatible World
      6. 4.6. An Embarrassment of Riches?
      7. 4.7. Reusability
        1. 4.7.1. Derivative Works.
    5. 5. Audits and Compliance Initiatives
      1. 5.1. Provenance and Objective Checking
      2. 5.2. Applying Policy and Legal Review
      3. 5.3. Some Nuts and Bolts
    6. 6. Notice Requirements
    7. 7. Patents and Open Source
      1. 7.1. Patent Debate
      2. 7.2. Patent Portfolio Management
    8. 8. Trademarks and Open Source
      1. 8.1. Trademark Law And Open Source Licensing
      2. 8.2. Trademarks in the Open Source World
      3. 8.3. At&t Unix Battle
    9. 9. Open Source and Open Standards
    10. 10. Developing a Corporate Open Source Policy
    11. 10A. Open Source Corporate Policy
      1. 10A.1. [Company] Open Source Software Policy
        1. 10A.1.1. I. Introduction
        2. 10A.1.2. II. Open Source Licenses
        3. 10A.1.3. III. Protecting Company Intellectual Property in the Open Source Context
        4. 10A.1.4. IV. Open Source Code Procurement and Support
        5. 10A.1.5. V. Considerations in Marketing Open Source Products
    12. 11. Open Source Code Releases
      1. A.1. Choosing a License
      2. A.2. Effect on Patent Portfolio
      3. A.3. Effect on Trademarks
      4. A.4. Open Source Business Models
      5. A.5. Dual Licensing
      6. A.6. "Ur-Licensor" and Open Source Decision Models
      7. A.7. Contribution Agreements
      8. A.8. Reissuing Code
      9. A.9. Corporate Organization
    13. 11A. Open Source Trademark Policy
      1. 11A.1. This Form is an Example of a Policy for a Dual-Licensed Open Source Product. Foobar Trademark Policy
      2. 11A.2. Trademarks and the GPL
      3. 11A.3. Modified Software and Unmodified Software
      4. 11A.4. Uses Permitted under This Policy
        1. 11A.4.1. Developers and Affiliates
        2. 11A.4.2. Linking
        3. 11A.4.3. Services Related to Foobar Software
      5. 11A.5. Policy Updates
      6. 11A.6. Questions
  4. 2. Understanding Risks
    1. 12. Technical Background: Operating System Kernels, User Space, and Elements of Programming
      1. A.1. What Is the Difference Between an Application and an Operating System?
      2. A.2. What Is an Operating System Kernel?
      3. A.3. What Is an Application?
      4. A.4. Dynamic and Static Linking, and Inline Code
      5. A.5. Header Files
      6. A.6. Monoliths and Loadable Kernel Modules
    2. 13. Enforcement of Open Source Licenses
      1. A.1. Past Enforcement
      2. A.2. Enforcement Obstacles
        1. A.2.1. Lack of Track Record: GPL Has Never Been Tested in Court
        2. A.2.2. Waiver/Estoppel: Occasional and Selective Enforcement of GPL Means It Is Unenforceable
        3. A.2.3. Formation: GPL Is Not Validly Accepted by Licensees
        4. A.2.4. GPL Constitutes Copyright Misuse
        5. A.2.5. Joint Work Arguments
        6. A.2.6. Standing and Joinder Arguments
    3. 14. The Border Dispute of GPL2
      1. A.1. Defining the Border Dispute
      2. A.2. What the GPL Says
      3. A.3. Rules of Contract Construction
      4. A.4. Applying the Four Corners Rule to GPL2
      5. A.5. Applying the Rules of Contract Construction to GPL2
      6. A.6. Trade Usage and Other Extrinsic Evidence
      7. A.7. Derivative Works Question
      8. A.8. The Facts
      9. A.9. Legal Rules
      10. A.10. Analyzing the Case of Two Works
      11. A.11. Is the Result One or Two Works?
      12. A.12. Policy Arguments
      13. A.13. Non-U.S. Law Interpretations
      14. A.14. Approach of Legal Realism
      15. A.15. Outside the Four Corners
      16. A.16. Loadable Kernel Modules
      17. A.17. The Hardest Cases
      18. A.18. LGPL Compliance
    4. 15. License or Contract?
      1. A.1. Contract Formation
      2. A.2. Arguments Supporting Formation
      3. A.3. Implications of Absence of Contract Formation
      4. A.4. Incentives for Formation Arguments
    5. 16. Defining Distribution
    6. 17. Open Source in Mergers and Acquisitions and Other Transactions
      1. A.1. Open Source in Licensing and Commercial Transactions
      2. A.2. Development Agreements
    7. 18. GPL Version 3.0
      1. A.1. What is the Effect of the Release of GPL3?
      2. A.2. Adoption of GPL3
      3. A.3. Politics and Context
      4. A.4. "Derivative Works" Problem
      5. A.5. "Propagation" and "Conveying"
      6. A.6. Patents
      7. A.7. Digital Millennium Copyright Act Provisions
      8. A.8. "Java Problem"
      9. A.9. Disabling and Obfuscation
      10. A.10. ASP Problem
      11. A.11. License Compatibility
    8. 19. LGPL Version 3.0
      1. 19.1. New Approach for LGPL
      2. 19.2. Adoption of LGPL3
      3. 19.3. Politics and Context
      4. 19.4. Definitions
      5. 19.5. Compliance
      6. 19.6. Drawbacks
  5. A. Open Source Development Agreement
    1. A.1. Agreement for Consulting By_____
    2. A.2. Statements of Work
      1. A.2.1. Statements of Work
      2. A.2.2. Lost Time
      3. A.2.3. Acceptance Testing
    3. A.3. Compensation
      1. A.3.1. Services
      2. A.3.2. Status Reports
      3. A.3.3. Expenses
      4. A.3.4. Payments
    4. A.4. Confidentiality
      1. A.4.1. Definition
      2. A.4.2. Non-Use and Non-Disclosure
      3. A.4.3. Return of Materials
    5. A.5. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
      1. A.5.1. Deliverables
      2. A.5.2. Third-Party Materials
      3. A.5.3. Intellectual Property Claims
      4. A.5.4. Warranty and Disclaimer
    6. A.6. Term and Termination
      1. A.6.1. Term
      2. A.6.2. Termination
      3. A.6.3. Survival
    7. A.7. Miscellaneous
      1. A.7.1. Non-Assignment/Binding Agreement
      2. A.7.2. Notices
      3. A.7.3. Waiver
      4. A.7.4. Severability
      5. A.7.5. Integration
      6. A.7.6. Counterparts
      7. A.7.7. Governing Law
      8. A.7.8. Independent Contractors
      9. A.7.9. Attorney's Fees
      10. A.7.10. Non-Solicitation
      11. A.7.11. Limitation of Remedies and Damages
  6. D. Glossary