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The Official Ubuntu Book, Third Edition

Book Description

Ubuntu is a complete, free operating system that emphasizes community, support, and ease of use without compromising speed, power, or flexibility. It’s Linux for human beings—designed for everyone from computer novices to experts. Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Long Term Support), a.k.a., “Hardy Heron,” is the latest release—more powerful, more flexible, and friendlier than ever. The Official Ubuntu Book, Third Edition, will get you up and running quickly.

Written by expert leading Ubuntu community members, this book covers all you need to know to make the most of Ubuntu 8.04 LTS, whether you’re a home user, small business user, server administrator, or programmer. The authors cover Ubuntu 8.04 LTS from start to finish: installation, configuration, desktop productivity, games, management, support, and much more. Among the many new topics covered in this edition: the new Edubuntu and the brand new Kubuntu Remix including KDE 4.

The Official Ubuntu Book, Third Edition, covers standard desktop applications, from word processing, spreadsheets, Web browsing, e-mail, instant messaging, music, video, and games to software development, databases, and server applications. In addition, you’ll

  • Learn how to customize Ubuntu for home, small business, school, government, and enterprise environments

  • Learn how to quickly update Ubuntu to accommodate new versions and new applications

  • Find up-to-the-minute troubleshooting advice from Ubuntu users worldwide

  • Learn Ubuntu Server installation and administration, including LVM and RAID implementation

  • Learn about Edubuntu—Ubuntu optimized specifically for the classroom

  • The DVD includes the complete Ubuntu Linux operating system for installation on PC platforms, preconfigured with an outstanding desktop environment for both home and business computing. It can be used to install other complete variants of Ubuntu including Kubuntu (with the KDE environment), and Edubuntu (for use in schools).

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Praise for The Official Ubuntu Book
    3. Foreword to the First Edition
      1. What Makes Ubuntu So Popular?
    4. Preface
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. About the Authors
    7. Introduction
      1. About This Book
        1. The Scope of the Book
        2. The Menu
    8. 1. Introducing Ubuntu
      1. A Wild Ride
      2. Free Software, Open Source, and GNU/Linux
        1. Free Software and GNU
        2. Linux
        3. Open Source
      3. A Brief History of Ubuntu
        1. Mark Shuttleworth
        2. The Warthogs
        3. What Does Ubuntu Mean?
        4. Creating Canonical
      4. What Is Ubuntu?
        1. What Is a Distribution?
        2. An Ecosystem of Distributions
        3. The Debian Project and the Free Software Universe
        4. The Ubuntu Community
      5. Ubuntu Promises and Goals
        1. Philosophical Goals
        2. Conduct Goals and Code of Conduct
        3. Technical Goals
        4. Bug #1
      6. Canonical and the Ubuntu Foundation
        1. Canonical Ltd.
        2. Canonical’s Service and Support
        3. Bazaar and Launchpad
        4. The Ubuntu Foundation
      7. Ubuntu Subprojects, Derivatives, and Spin-offs
      8. Summary
    9. 2. Installing Ubuntu
      1. Choosing Your Ubuntu Version
        1. Other Ubuntu Distributions
        2. Is It Still Ubuntu?
      2. Getting Ubuntu
        1. Burning a CD
          1. In Windows with ISO Recorder
          2. In Windows with Nero Burning ROM
          3. In Linux with GNOME
          4. Burning with Mac OS X
      3. Installing from the Desktop CD
        1. Language
        2. Location
        3. Configuring Your Keyboard
        4. Disk Space
          1. Deciding on Your Partitions
          2. Ubuntu Only
          3. Dual-Booting
          4. Manual Partitioning
        5. Identification
        6. Migration
        7. Finishing Up
      4. Installing from the Alternate Install CD
        1. Choosing Your Spot in the World
        2. Hardware
        3. Setting the Hostname and Time Zone
        4. Creating Partitions
          1. Guided—Use Entire Disk
          2. Guided—Use Entire Disk and Set Up LVM
          3. Guided—Use Entire Disk and Set Up Encrypted LVM
          4. Manual
        5. Configuring a User
        6. Finishing Up
      5. Summary
    10. 3. Using Ubuntu on the Desktop
      1. Taking Your Desktop for a Ride
        1. Starting Applications and Finding Things
          1. Changing Your Menu Layout
        2. Finding Your Files and Folders
        3. Configuring Your System
        4. Shortcut Icons
        5. Applets
        6. The Notification Area
        7. The Clock
        8. The Taskbar
        9. Shutting Down Your Computer and Logging Out
      2. Using Your Applications
        1. Browsing the Web with Firefox
          1. Tabbed Browsing
          2. Bookmarking Your Favorite Sites
          3. Save Time with Live Bookmarks
          4. Bolt It On, Make It Cool
        2. Creating Documents with
        3. Managing Your E-Mail and Calendars with Evolution
          1. Setting Up Your E-Mail Account
          2. Working with Your E-Mail
          3. Managing Your Calendar
        4. Creating Graphics with GIMP
          1. An Example
        5. Communicating with Pidgin
          1. Setting Up Your Accounts
          2. Using Instant Messaging
          3. Using IRC
        6. Cutting-Edge Voice Over IP with Ekiga
          1. Setting Up
          2. Making a Call
        7. Exploring the Ubuntu Landscape
          1. Other Applications to Try
      3. The Ubuntu File Chooser and Bookmarks
      4. Ubuntu in Your Language
      5. Customizing Ubuntu’s Look and Feel
        1. Changing the Background
        2. Changing the Theme
          1. Choosing a New Theme
          2. Installing New Themes
        3. Configuring a Screensaver
      6. Managing Your Files
        1. How Linux Stores and Organizes Files
          1. Which Folder Does What?
          2. Configuration Files
        2. Selecting, Copying, and Moving Files and Folders
        3. Using the Sidebar
        4. Using Emblems
      7. Ubuntu and Multimedia
        1. Installing Codecs
        2. Listening to Audio Files
          1. Using Rhythmbox
          2. Listening to Podcasts
        3. Playing and Ripping CDs
          1. Ripping Songs as Oggs
          2. Ripping Songs as MP3s
        4. Watching Videos
          1. Using Totem
          2. Getting DVDs to Work
      8. Summary
    11. 4. Advanced Usage and Managing Ubuntu
      1. Adding and Removing Programs and Packages
        1. Installing and Using Add/Remove Applications
        2. Terminology
        3. Installing with Synaptic
          1. Installing a Package
          2. Removing a Package
          3. Finding That Package
      2. Keeping Your Computer Updated
        1. Installing Updates
        2. Learning about What Was Updated
        3. Using Synaptic to Check for Updates
      3. Moving to the Next Ubuntu Release
        1. Doing the Actual Upgrade
      4. Using and Abusing Devices and Media
        1. Using USB Keyring Drives
        2. Burning CDs
          1. Burning a CD from an Image
        3. Using Floppy Disks
        4. Using Digital Cameras
      5. Configuring a Printer in Ubuntu
        1. Making It Easier with Printer Configurations
        2. Gathering Information
        3. Launching the Wizard
        4. Mission Accomplished!
        5. Remote Printing
      6. Graphically Accessing Remote Files
      7. The Terminal
        1. A Crash Course in the Terminal
          1. Getting Started
          2. Building Pipelines
          3. Running Commands as the Superuser
          4. Finding Help
      8. Working with Windows
        1. Running Applications
        2. Using Windows Files on Another Partition
      9. Summary
    12. 5. The Ubuntu Server
      1. What Is Ubuntu Server?
      2. Installing Ubuntu Server
        1. A Couple of Installer Tricks
        2. Partitioning Your Ubuntu Server
        3. The Story of RAID
          1. RAID 0
          2. RAID 1
          3. RAID 5
          4. Which RAID to Choose?
        4. Setting Up RAID
        5. The Story of the Logical Volume Manager
          1. LVM Theory and Jargon
        6. Setting Up LVM
        7. Software Selection
        8. You’re Done—Now Watch Out for Root!
      3. Ubuntu Package Management
        1. The Ubuntu Archive
        2. APT Sources and Repositories
        3. dpkg
          1. Listing Packages
        4. Installing a Package Manually
        5. apt-get and apt-cache
          1. Searching the Package Cache and Showing Package Information
          2. Installing a Package
          3. Removing a Package
          4. Performing System Updates
        6. Running a Distribution Upgrade
          1. Building Packages from Source
        7. aptitude
        8. Tips and Tricks
          1. Listing Files Owned by a Package
          2. Finding Which Package Owns a File
          3. Finding Which Package Provides a File
      4. Ubuntu Server Security
        1. User Account Administration
        2. Filesystem Security
          1. nodev
          2. nosuid
          3. noexec
          4. noatime
        3. System Resource Limits
        4. System Log Files
          1. Your Log Toolbox
        5. A Sprinkling of Network Security
        6. Final Words on Security
      5. Summary
    13. 6. Support and Typical Problems
      1. The System
        1. Ubuntu Won’t Start!
          1. The Bootloader
          2. Backing Up and Restoring Your Boot Sector
        2. Ubuntu Loads but Keeps Restarting
          1. Memory Problems
          2. Wrong Kernel
        3. The Ubuntu Logo Appears Corrupted or Just Looks Odd While Booting
        4. When I Start My Computer, I Get Text Instead of a Graphical Interface
        5. I Tried to Use a Word or PowerPoint Document, and the Fonts Are All Wrong
        6. I Want to Add TrueType Fonts to My Desktop Quickly
        7. My Fonts Don’t Look Good on My LCD Screen
        8. How Do I Install a Package?
        9. How Do I Install Another Desktop Environment?
        10. I Want to Install an Application That Is Not in Synaptic
        11. I Want a Local Copy of the Ubuntu Repositories
        12. The File Manager Is Painfully Slow—How Can I Make It Run Faster?
        13. I Can’t See the Hidden Files and Folders in the File Manager
        14. How Do I Restore Something I Deleted in the File Manager?
        15. How Can I Test Whether an .iso File Works?
        16. I Downloaded an Autopackage, but I Don’t Know How to Run It
        17. How Do I Compile an Application?
        18. The Desktop Has Hung—What Do I Do?
        19. My Screen Resolution Is Wrong
        20. How Can I Automatically Log In Without Having to Enter My Login Details?
        21. I Tried to Upgrade My System, but I Got an Error
        22. I Am Running Out of Disk Space—How Do I Free Up Some Space?
        23. I Deleted Something in the File Manager, but I Don’t See the Extra Disk Space
        24. Another Version of Ubuntu Is Out—How Do I Upgrade to It?
      2. Applications
        1. When I Click the Close Window Icon, My Program Doesn’t Go Away
        2. The Upgrade Notification Bubble Keeps Appearing, and I Want It to Stop
        3. Extending the File Manager with Scripts
          1. Installing a Script
          2. A Sample Nautilus Script
        4. I Went to a Web Site in Firefox, and the Macromedia Flash Plug-in Is Missing
        5. Java Is Not Installed on My System
        6. My E-Mail Doesn’t Work in Evolution
      3. Multimedia
        1. I Downloaded a Particular Media File, and It Won’t Play
        2. My DVD Won’t Play
        3. DVD Playback Is Jittery and Jumpy
        4. When I Start Some Applications, I Hear No Sound on Playback
        5. My Microphone Doesn’t Work
        6. My Sound Is Distorted
        7. How Do I Change the Visual Theme?
        8. How Do I Find and Install New Desktop Themes and Backgrounds?
        9. How Do I Turn My Ubuntu Computer into a MythTV Box?
      4. Networking
        1. I Can’t Access My Wired Local Area Network
        2. My Computer Says It Can’t Resolve a Web Site
        3. How Do I Use SSH for Transferring Files Across a Network?
        4. How Do I Use a Graphical Application Remotely with SSH?
        5. My Wireless Card Is Not Working
        6. I Need to Use WPA or I Use WPA-PSK on My Wireless Access Point
      5. Hardware
        1. Ubuntu Has Not Detected My Old Sound Card
        2. My Cardbus Adapter Is Not Being Recognized
        3. I Plug In My USB Stick and Nothing Happens
        4. I Copied Some Files to/from My USB Stick, but When I Access It Later, the Files Are Not There
        5. My CD-ROM/DVD Drive Is Not Working
        6. My CD-ROM/DVD Drive Won’t Eject
        7. I Bought a Device, but It Doesn’t Work in Ubuntu
        8. My Computer Says It Is Out of Memory
        9. How Can I Copy Photos from My Mobile Phone to My Ubuntu Computer with Bluetooth?
        10. I Can Read My USB Storage Device, but I Can’t Write to It
        11. I Still Can’t Write to My Drive!
        12. How Do I Format a Disk?
        13. The Keys on My Keyboard Spit Out the Wrong Letters/Symbols
        14. My Serial Mouse Is Not Working
        15. My Mouse Scroll Wheel Does Not Work
        16. My Remote Control Doesn’t Work
        17. How Do I Find Out Which Hardware Works in Ubuntu Before I Purchase It?
      6. System Administration
        1. How Do I Schedule Things to Happen?
          1. Crontab Sections
          2. Crontab Command Options
          3. An Example
        2. How Can I Copy a File from One Computer to Another?
        3. I Know an Application Is Available in Ubuntu, but Synaptic Can’t Find It
        4. I Am Running Ubuntu on an Older Computer, and I Would Like a Faster Desktop
        5. I Reinstalled Windows, and Now Ubuntu Won’t Start!
        6. How Do I Fix My Disk After a Power Failure?
        7. Ubuntu Takes Up Too Much Disk Space on My Old Computer
        8. My Computer Is Running Quite Slowly—How Can I Find Out What Is Going On?
        9. How Can I Learn the Different Options for Commands?
        10. How Do I Get My Root Account Back?
        11. I Forgot My System Password—What Can I Do?
        12. How Do I Access My Windows Partitions?
        13. How Do I Add Users?
      7. Other
        1. Running Another OS in Ubuntu
        2. It Was Suggested I File a Bug Report, but I Don’t Know How
        3. How Can I Monitor the Weather?
        4. How Do I Make Ubuntu Bread?
        5. How Can I Prevent the Pain I Get in My Fingers When I Type?
      8. Summary
    14. 7. The Ubuntu Community
      1. Venues
        1. Mailing Lists
          1. ubuntu-announce
          2. ubuntu-devel-announce
          3. ubuntu-users
          4. ubuntu-devel-discuss
          5. ubuntu-devel
          6. sounder
        2. Internet Relay Chat
        3. Web Forums
        4. Wikis
        5. The Fridge
        6. Developer Summits and Sprints
        7. User Conferences
        8. Planet Ubuntu
      2. Teams, Processes, and Community Governance
        1. Teams
        2. Local Community Teams
        3. MOTUs
        4. The Community Council
        5. The Technical Board
        6. The SABDFL
        7. Ubunteros and Ubuntu Members
      3. Getting Involved
        1. Advocacy
        2. Support
        3. Ideas and Feedback
        4. Documentation
        5. Artwork
        6. Translation and Localization
        7. Quality Assurance and Bugs
        8. Programming and Packaging
      4. Summary
    15. 8. Using Kubuntu
      1. Introduction to Kubuntu
        1. A History of KDE
        2. A History of Kubuntu
      2. Installing Kubuntu
        1. Where to Find Kubuntu
        2. Finding the Right Version of Kubuntu
        3. Can I Switch to Kubuntu If I Have Ubuntu Installed Already?
        4. Can I Switch to KDE4 If I Am Currently Running 8.04 with KDE3?
        5. Installing from the Desktop CD
      3. Navigating in Kubuntu
        1. Shutting Down Your Computer and Logging Out
        2. Using sudo instead of a Root Account
      4. Customizing Kubuntu
        1. Customizing Plasma
        2. Get Hot New Stuff
      5. System Administration
        1. Installing New Packages
        2. Managing Repositories
        3. Installing a Package
        4. Upgrading Kubuntu
        5. How to Keep the System Up to Date
        6. System Settings
        7. Look & Feel
        8. Personal
        9. Computer Administration
        10. Advanced Tab
        11. Advanced User Settings
        12. System
      6. Managing Files with Kubuntu
        1. Introduction to Dolphin
        2. Changes to the File Structure
        3. Introduction to Konqueror
        4. Accessing Windows Partitions
        5. Accessing USB Drives
        6. Managing Music
      7. Common Applications
        2. Web Browsing with Konqueror
        3. Using Firefox for Browsing the Web
        4. Burning CDs—Audio and Data
        5. Instant Messaging
        6. Internet Relay Chat
        7. Kontact
          1. Setting Up Your E-Mail Account
          2. Using KOrganizer
          3. Using Akregator
        8. Kiosk Mode
        9. Exploring the Kubuntu Landscape
        10. Tips and Tricks
          1. Run Programs Automatically When Kubuntu Starts
          2. Log In Automatically to Kubuntu When the Computer Starts
          3. Automatically Turn On Numlock When Kubuntu Starts
      8. Finding Help and Giving Back to the Community
        1. Finding Help
        2. Giving Back to the Community
      9. Summary
    16. 9. Using Edubuntu
      1. Introduction to Edubuntu
        1. A History of Edubuntu
        2. Where to Find Edubuntu
      2. Installing Edubuntu as an Add-on
      3. Applications
        1. Standard Applications
        2. Educational Applications
          1. GCompris Administration
          2. Kalzium
          3. Kanagram
          4. KBruch
          5. KEduca
          6. KEduca-Editor
          7. KHangman
          8. Kig
          9. KmPlot
          10. KPercentage
          11. KStars
          12. KTouch
          13. KTurtle
          14. Kverbos
          15. KVocTrain
          16. Others Not on the Education Menu
      4. Using Edubuntu in LTSP Mode
        1. What Is LTSP?
        2. How Does LTSP Work?
        3. The Benefits of LTSP
        4. Other Uses
        5. LTSP Availability in Ubuntu
        6. Installing an LTSP Server
          1. LTSP Server Configurations
          2. The Installation Procedure
          3. Initial LTSP Server Setup
          4. Initial LTSP Client Setup
          5. Switching to Edubuntu If Ubuntu Is Already Installed
        7. Installing the LTSP Environment in Ubuntu or on a Desktop Installation
        8. Special LTSP Cases
          1. Setting Up LTSP to Coexist with an Existing DHCP Server
          2. Dual-Booting with Another Operating System on the Hard Disk
      5. Managing Your LTSP Server
        1. Updating the Server
        2. Installing Applications
        3. Removing Applications
        4. Changing Your IP Address
        5. Local Devices over LTSP
        6. Sound over LTSP
        7. Printing over LTSP
        8. Using Other Window Managers with Edubuntu
      6. Managing Your Edubuntu Clients
        1. Updating the Client NFS Root
        2. Upgrading the Client’s Kernel Version
      7. Controlling and Managing the Users’ Desktops
        1. Using Thin Client Manager
        2. Managing Processes
        3. Logging Users Out of Their Sessions
        4. Sending Messages
        5. Starting Programs
        6. Locking or Blanking Screens
        7. The Lockdown Editor
        8. Managing Users with Groups
        9. Plug-ins
      8. Troubleshooting LTSP
        1. The Computer Is Not Obtaining an IP Address
        2. NFS Server Is Not Responding
        3. VMWare Client Crashes While Booting
        4. Some Intel Boot Agents Will Not Boot at All
      9. Finding Help and Giving Back to the Community
        1. Finding Help
          1. Web Site
          2. Mailing List
          3. Internet Relay Chat
          4. Forums
        2. Giving Back to the Community
      10. Summary
    17. 10. Ubuntu-Related Projects
      1. Ubuntu Editions
        1. Kubuntu
        2. Edubuntu
        3. Xubuntu
        4. Gobuntu
        5. Ubuntu Studio
      2. Derived Distributions
        1. Guadalinex
        2. gNewSense
        3. Linspire and Freespire
        4. Ubuntulite
        5. Nexenta OS
        6. The Open CD
      3. Launchpad
        1. Soyuz
        2. Rosetta
        3. Malone
        4. Blueprint
        5. Answers
        6. Other Functionality
      4. Bazaar
      5. Summary
    18. A. Welcome to the Command Line
      1. Starting Up the Terminal
      2. Moving Around the Filesystem
      3. Manipulating Files and Folders
      4. System Information Commands
      5. Searching and Editing Text Files
      6. Dealing with Users and Groups
      7. Getting Help on the Command Line
      8. Searching for Man Files
      9. Using Wildcards
      10. Executing Multiple Commands
        1. Running Sequentially
        2. Passing Output
      11. Moving to More Advanced Uses of the Command Line
    19. B. Ubuntu Foundation Documents
      1. Code of Conduct
        1. Ground Rules
        2. Mailing Lists and Web Forums
      2. Leadership Code of Conduct
        1. Leadership By Example
        2. Respecting Ubuntu Processes and Principles
        3. Delegation
        4. Credit
        5. Conflicts of Interest
        6. Keeping the Personal Personal
        7. Stepping Down
      3. Ubuntu Philosophy
        1. Free Software
        2. Open Source
      4. Components
        1. “Main” Component
        2. “Restricted” Component
        3. “Universe” Component
        4. “Multiverse” Component
      5. Licensing
        1. Categories of Software in Ubuntu
        2. Ubuntu “Main” Component Policy
        3. Ubuntu “Main” and “Restricted” Component License Policy
        4. Documentation, Firmware, and Drivers
        5. The Purpose of the “Restricted” Component
        6. Software Installed by Default
    20. C. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Open Publication License
      1. Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
      2. License
      3. Creative Commons Notice
    21. D. Ubuntu Equivalents to Windows Programs
      1. On the Ubuntu Desktop
        1. Word Processing
        2. Spreadsheet
        3. Presentation
        4. Database
        5. Web Browser
        6. E-Mail
        7. Media Players
        8. Photo Editor
        9. Instant Messaging
        10. Voice Over IP
      2. Additional Applications
        1. Office and Finance
          1. Personal Accounting
          2. Accounting
          3. Desktop Publishing
          4. Project Management
        2. Drawing and Modeling
          1. Vector Drawing
          2. 3D Modeler
          3. Diagram Editing
        3. Games and Edutainment
          1. Planetarium
          2. Space Simulator
          3. Flight Simulator
          4. Typing Tutor
    22. DVD Warranty