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The Mechanical Universe by Tom M. Apostol, Richard P. Olenick, Steven C. Frautschi

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CHAPTER 10ENERGY: CONSERVATION AND CONVERSION

    … You see, therefore, that living force [energy] may be converted into heat, and that heat may be converted into living force, or its equivalent attraction through space. All three, therefore – namely, heat, living force, and attraction through space (to which I might also add light, were it consistent with the scope of the present lecture) – are mutually convertible into one another. In these conversions nothing is ever lost. The same quantity of heat will always be converted into the same quantity of living force. We can therefore express the equivalency in definite language applicable at all times and under all circumstances.

    James Prescott Joule, “On Matter, Living Force, and Heat” (1847) ...

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