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The Mechanical Universe by Tom M. Apostol, Richard P. Olenick, Steven C. Frautschi

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CHAPTER 8FORCES

    I don't know what I may seem to the world, but, as to myself, I seem to have been only a boy playing on the sea shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

    Isaac Newton

8.1 THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCES: CLASSIFICATION AND UNIFICATION

Using crude water clocks to time balls rolling down inclined planes, Galileo searched for and found a description of how bodies fall. His law of falling bodies, however, wasn’t a fundamental law of nature. Within half a century it was superseded by a deeper insight into nature – Newton’s universal law of gravity. Through the genius of Newton, the force of gravity,

was revealed ...

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