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The Manual of Photography and Digital Imaging, 10th Edition

Book Description

The tenth edition of The Manual of Photography is an indispensable textbook for anyone who is serious about photography. It is ideal if you want to gain insight into the underlying scientific principles of photography and digital imaging, whether you are a professional photographer, lab technician, researcher or student in the field, or simply an enthusiastic amateur. This comprehensive guide takes you from capture to output in both digital and film media, with sections on lens use, darkroom techniques, digital cameras and scanners, image editing techniques and processes, workflow, digital file formats and image archiving.

This iconic text was first published in 1890 and has aided many thousands of photographers in developing their own techniques and understanding of the medium. Now in full colour, The Manual of Photography still retains its clear, reader-friendly style and is filled with images and illustrations demonstrating the key principles. Not only giving you the skills and know-how to take stunning photographs, but will also allowing you to fully understand the science behind the creation of great images.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Editors’ Acknowledgements
  8. Author Biographies
  9. 1. Introduction to the imaging process
    1. Introduction
    2. The imaging process
    3. Image control
      1. Control of image shape
      2. Depth of field
      3. Tone and contrast
      4. Colour
    4. The origins of photography
      1. Camera obscura
      2. Early experiments
      3. Towards the development process – the Daguerreotype
      4. The negative–positive process
      5. Modern materials
    5. Photographic imaging today
      1. Characteristics of photographic materials
      2. Capturing colour
    6. Digital imaging
      1. Early digital images
      2. The CMOS sensor
      3. Colour digital capture
      4. Other digital devices
    7. Digital image representation
      1. Spatial resolution
      2. Bit depth
      3. Colour representation
      4. File size and file formats
    8. Imaging chains
    9. Evaluating image quality
    10. Bibliography
  10. 2. Light theory
    1. Introduction
    2. A brief history of light theory
    3. Wave–particle duality
    4. The nature of light
    5. Radiometry and photometry
      1. Radiometric definitions
      2. Photometric definitions
    6. Optics
    7. Wave theory
      1. Simple harmonic motion
      2. Principle of superposition
      3. Plane waves
      4. Light intensity
      5. Refraction and dispersion
      6. Polarization
      7. Interference
      8. Diffraction
      9. Diffraction of a circular aperture and a single slit
      10. Rayleigh criterion
    8. The electromagnetic spectrum
    9. Black-body radiation
      1. Wien’s Displacement Law
      2. Planck’s Law
    10. The photoelectric effect
    11. The photon
    12. Bohr model of the atom
    13. The emission of electromagnetic radiation in atoms
    14. Bibliography
  11. 3. Photographic light sources
    1. Introduction
    2. Characteristics of light sources
      1. Spectral quality
      2. Spectral power distribution curve
      3. Colour temperature
      4. Colour rendering
      5. Percentage content of primary hues
      6. Measurement and control of colour temperature
      7. The mired scale
    3. Light output
      1. Units
      2. Illumination laws
      3. Reflectors and luminaires
      4. Constancy of output
      5. Efficiency
    4. Daylight
    5. Tungsten filament lamps
    6. Tungsten–halogen lamps
    7. Fluorescent lamps
    8. Metal-halide lamps
    9. Pulsed xenon lamps
    10. Expendable flashbulbs
    11. Electronic flash
      1. Flash circuitry
      2. Flash output and power
      3. Flash duration and exposure
      4. Portable units
      5. Studio flash
      6. Automatic flash exposure
      7. Integral flash units
      8. Red-eye avoidance
    12. Other sources
      1. Light-emitting diodes
      2. Diode lasers
    13. Bibliography
  12. 4. The human visual system
    1. Introduction
    2. The physical structure of the human eye
      1. Tunics
      2. Cornea
      3. Conjunctiva
      4. Iris and pupil
      5. Crystalline lens
      6. Ciliary body
      7. Vitreous cavity and vitreous humour
      8. Retina and choroid
      9. Optic nerve
      10. Structure of the retina
      11. Rods and cones
      12. ‘Non-imaging’ cell layers
      13. Receptive fields
    3. Dark adaptation
    4. Elementary colour vision
      1. Young–Helmholtz theory of colour vision
      2. Opponent theory of colour vision
    5. Colour anomalous vision
    6. Movement and Focusing
      1. Focusing and correction of eyesight
      2. Movement
    7. The visual pathway
      1. Visual cortex
    8. Binocular vision
    9. Performance of the eye
      1. Luminance discrimination
      2. Contrast sensitivity function
      3. Visual acuity
    10. Animal vision
    11. Bibliography
  13. 5. Introduction to colour science
    1. Introduction
    2. The physics of colour
    3. Colour terminology
    4. The colour of objects
      1. Spectral absorptance, reflectance and transmittance
    5. CIE standard illuminating and viewing geometries
    6. CIE standard illuminants and sources
    7. Models of colour vision
    8. The basics of colorimetry
      1. Colour matching functions and the CIE standard observers
      2. Calculating tristimulus values from spectral data
      3. Chromaticity diagrams
      4. CIE uniform colour spaces and colour differences
      5. Metamerism and types of metameric matches
    9. The appearance of colours
      1. Visual adaptation and related mechanisms
      2. Other colour appearance phenomena
    10. An introduction to CATs and CAMs
      1. A generalized CAT
      2. Colour appearance models (CAMs)
    11. Colour reproduction
      1. Objectives of colour reproduction
    12. Instruments used in colour measurement
    13. Viewing conditions
    14. Bibliography
  14. 6. Photographic and geometrical optics
    1. Introduction
    2. Photographic optics
      1. Optical materials
      2. Reflection
      3. Refraction
      4. Transmission
      5. Dispersion
      6. Polarization
    3. Geometrical optics
      1. Simple lens
      2. Cardinal planes
      3. Focal length
      4. Image magnification
      5. Mirrors
    4. Optical calculations
      1. Parameters
      2. Equations
      3. Focusing movements
      4. Depth of field and depth of focus
    5. The photometry of image formation
      1. Stops and pupils
      2. Aperture
      3. Image luminance and illumination
      4. Image illuminance
      5. Exposure compensation for close-up photography
      6. Lens flare
      7. T-numbers
      8. Anti-reflection coatings
      9. Types of coating
    6. Bibliography
  15. 7. Images and image formation
    1. Introduction
    2. Sinusoidal waves
      1. Modulation
      2. Images and sine waves
      3. Imaging sinusoidal patterns
    3. Fourier theory of image formation
      1. Linear, spatially invariant systems
      2. Spread functions
      3. The point spread function (PSF)
      4. The line spread function (LSF)
      5. The edge spread function (ESF)
      6. The imaging equation (from input to output)
      7. The imaging equation in one dimension
      8. The modulation transfer function (MTF)
    4. Special Fourier transform pairs
      1. The rectangular function
      2. The Dirac delta function
      3. Properties of δ(x)
      4. Importance of δ(x)
      5. The Gaussian function
    5. The modulation transfer function revisited
      1. Cascading of MTFs
    6. Convolution revisited
      1. A geometric interpretation of convolution
      2. The convolution theorem
    7. Discrete transforms and sampling
      1. Undersampling a cosine wave
      2. The Dirac comb (the sampling function)
      3. The process of sampling
      4. The MTF for a CCD imaging array
    8. Bibliography
  16. 8. Sensitometry
    1. Introduction
    2. The subject
    3. Exposure
    4. Density and other relevant measures
      1. Transmittance
      2. Opacity
      3. Density
    5. Effect of light scatter in a negative
      1. Callier coefficient
    6. Density in practice
    7. The Characteristic (H and D) curve
      1. Main regions of the negative characteristic curve
      2. Variation of the characteristic curve with the material
      3. Gamma–time curve
      4. Variation of gamma with wavelength
    8. Placing the subject on the characteristic curve
      1. Effect of variation of exposure of the negative
    9. Average gradient and G
    10. Contrast index
    11. Effect of variation in development on the negative
    12. Exposure latitude
    13. The response curve of a photographic paper
      1. Maximum black
      2. Exposure range of a paper
      3. Variation of the print characteristic curve with the type of emulsion
      4. Variation of the print characteristic curve with development
    14. Requirements in a print
      1. Paper contrast
    15. Reciprocity law failure
      1. Practical effects of reciprocity failure
      2. Intermittency effect
    16. Sensitometers
    17. Densitometers
      1. Microdensitometers
      2. Colour densitometers
    18. Bibliography
  17. 9. Image sensors
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and detection of light
      1. Conductors, insulators and semiconductors
      2. Doping
      3. Photoemission and photoabsorption
      4. Diodes
      5. Transistors
      6. CCD and CMOS sensors
      7. MOS capacitor
      8. Photodiodes
      9. Pixels
    3. CCD and CMOS image readout
      1. CCD readout
      2. CMOS readout
    4. Amplification and analogue-to-digital conversion
    5. Scanning methods
    6. Imaging performance
      1. Performance trade-offs
      2. Microlens arrays
      3. Sensitivity
      4. Exposure control
      5. Sensor imperfections
      6. Generating colour
    7. Bibliography
  18. 10. Camera lenses
    1. Lens aberrations
      1. Introduction
      2. Axial chromatic aberration
      3. Lateral chromatic aberration
      4. Spherical aberration
      5. Coma
      6. Curvature of field
      7. Astigmatism
      8. Curvilinear distortion
      9. Lens aperture and performance
    2. Photographic lenses
    3. Photographic lens types
      1. Simple lenses
      2. Compound lenses
      3. Development of the photographic lens
      4. Simple lenses and achromats
      5. The Petzval lens
      6. Symmetrical doublets
      7. Anastigmats
      8. Triplets
      9. Double-Gauss lenses
    4. Modern camera lenses
    5. Wide-angle lenses
      1. Symmetrical-derivative lenses
      2. Retrofocus lenses
      3. Fish-eye lenses
    6. Long-focus lenses
      1. Long-focus designs
      2. Telephoto lenses
      3. Catadioptric lenses (‘mirror lenses’)
    7. Zoom and varifocal lenses
      1. Zoom lenses
      2. Zoom lenses for compact and digital cameras
    8. Macro lenses
    9. Optical attachments
      1. Afocal converter lenses
      2. Close-up (supplementary) lenses
      3. Other attachments
      4. Teleconverters
    10. Optical filters
      1. Absorption filters
      2. UV and IR filters
      3. Neutral-density filters
      4. Polarizing filters
    11. Bibliography
  19. 11. Photographic camera systems
    1. Introduction
    2. Image format
    3. Camera types
      1. Simple cameras
      2. Compact cameras
      3. Rangefinder cameras
      4. Twin-lens reflex (TLR) cameras
      5. Single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras
      6. Technical cameras
    4. Special-purpose cameras
      1. Cameras for self-developing materials
      2. Aerial cameras
      3. Underwater cameras
      4. Ultrawide-angle cameras
      5. Panoramic cameras
    5. Automatic cameras
      1. Analogue systems
      2. Digital control
    6. Camera features
      1. Shutter systems
      2. Flash synchronization
      3. The iris diaphragm
      4. Viewfinder systems
      5. Focusing systems
      6. Autofocus systems
    7. Exposure metering systems
      1. Automatic exposure
      2. Programmed exposure modes
      3. Segmented photocell systems
    8. Battery power
    9. Camera shake and image stabilization
    10. Camera movements
    11. Bibliography
  20. 12. Exposure and image control
    1. Camera exposure
    2. Exposure relationships and logarithms
      1. Relative aperture
      2. Shutter speed
    3. Subject luminance ratio
    4. Dynamic range of sensors
    5. Optimum exposure and the transfer function
    6. Exposure meters
      1. Hand-held exposure meters
      2. Acceptance angle
      3. Exposure values
      4. Exposure factors
    7. Reciprocity law failure
    8. Types of light measurement
      1. Incident light measurement
      2. Reflected light measurement
    9. In-camera metering modes
      1. Spot metering
      2. Partial area metering
      3. Centre-weighted average metering
      4. Matrix or multi-zone metering
    10. Electronic flash exposure
      1. Guide numbers
    11. Reflected light measurement techniques
      1. Measurement of total scene luminance
      2. Measuring a middle grey surface (key tone)
      3. Measurement of luminance of the darkest shadow
      4. Measurement of luminance of the lightest highlight
      5. Averaging values
    12. Exposure techniques and digital cameras
      1. Using the image histogram
      2. ‘Exposing to the right’
    13. The zone system
      1. The zones
      2. The zone system and digital cameras
    14. High-dynamic-range (HDR) imaging
    15. Bibliography
  21. 13. Image formation and the photographic process
    1. Introduction
    2. Silver halides
    3. Latent image formation
    4. Spectral sensitivity of photographic materials
      1. Response of photographic materials to short-wave radiation
      2. Response of photographic materials to visible radiation
    5. Spectral sensitization
      1. Orthochromatic materials
      2. Panchromatic materials
      3. Extended sensitivity materials
      4. Infrared materials
      5. Other uses of dye sensitization
    6. Structure of photographic materials
      1. Production of light-sensitive materials and sensors
      2. The support
      3. Coating the photographic emulsion
    7. Sizes and formats of photographic materials
    8. Speed of photographic materials
      1. Speed systems and standards
    9. Characteristics of photographic materials
      1. Graininess and granularity
      2. Contrast
      3. Sharpness and acutance
    10. Chemistry of the photographic process
      1. Developers and development
      2. Composition of a developing solution
      3. Developing agents
      4. Preservatives
      5. Alkalis
      6. Restrainers (anti-foggants)
      7. Miscellaneous additions to developers
    11. Superadditivity (Synergesis)
      1. Development time
    12. Printing
      1. Darkroom work
      2. Development
    13. Bibliography
  22. 14. Digital cameras and scanners
    1. Digital still cameras
    2. Digital still camera architecture
    3. Imaging optics
    4. Image sensor
    5. Shutter systems
    6. Dynamic range in digital cameras
    7. Colour capture
      1. Three-sensor cameras
      2. Sequential colour cameras
      3. Colour filter array (CFA) cameras
      4. The Super CCD™
      5. The Foveon™ sensor
    8. Rendered versus unrendered camera processing
    9. Exposure determination and auto-exposure
    10. Autofocus control
    11. Analogue processing
    12. Digital processing
      1. Colour demosaicing
      2. Setting white balance
      3. Digital zoom, resizing and cropping
      4. Noise reduction
      5. Sharpening
    13. Tone/colour rendering
    14. Camera types
      1. Compact digital cameras
      2. Bridge digital cameras
      3. Digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras
      4. Digital cameras and camera backs for medium and large format
      5. Specialist digital cameras
    15. Image scanners
    16. Types of scanners
      1. Drum scanners
      2. Flatbed scanners
      3. Film scanners
      4. Flextight scanners
      5. Multi-spectral scanners
    17. Scanner characteristics
      1. Sampling and resolution
      2. Dynamic range
      3. Bit depth
      4. Scanning speed
      5. Image transfer
      6. Scanner drivers
    18. Bibliography
  23. 15. Displays
    1. Introduction
    2. Image display
    3. Cathode ray tube (CRT) displays
    4. Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)
    5. Other display technologies
      1. Plasma display panels (PDPs)
      2. Organic light-emitting displays (OLEDs)
      3. Flexible displays
    6. Characteristics of displays
      1. Refresh rate and response time
      2. Resolution
      3. Luminance
      4. Contrast ratio
      5. Viewing angle
      6. Colour
      7. Display artefacts
    7. Effect of viewing conditions
    8. Bibliography
  24. 16. Digital printing and materials
    1. Introduction
    2. Printing technologies
      1. Inkjet printers
      2. Electrophotographic printers
      3. Thermography
      4. Pictrography
    3. Printing media and their properties
      1. Paper for inkjet printing
      2. Inks for inkjet printing
      3. Toner materials
    4. Colour, resolution and output
      1. Half-toning and dithering
      2. Resolution
    5. Printing press
      1. Relief printing
      2. Planographic printing (or lithography)
      3. Recess printing
      4. Through printing
    6. Bibliography
  25. 17. Digital image file formats
    1. Introduction
      1. Raster and vector graphics
      2. Bit-depth support and colour encoding
      3. Compression methods
      4. Standardization of the format
      5. Metadata and Exif
      6. Colour management
      7. Additional features
    2. Tagged image file format (TIFF)
      1. TIFF/EP
      2. TIFF/IT
    3. Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
    4. Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG 2000)
    5. RAW
    6. Digital negative (DNG)
    7. Graphics interchange format (GIF)
    8. Portable network graphics (PNG)
    9. Photoshop document (PSD)
    10. Photo CD (PCD)
    11. Postscript (PS) and encapsulated postscript (EPS)
      1. EPS
    12. Portable document format (PDF)
    13. Bibliography
  26. 18. Image storage and archiving
    1. Introduction
    2. Life expectancy of traditional photographic media
      1. Processing conditions
      2. Dark fading
      3. Light fading
      4. Storage conditions
      5. Atmospheric gases
      6. Toning
    3. Life expectancy of digital prints
      1. Printing technologies and media
      2. Permanence factors and test for digital prints
    4. Digital image storage and longevity
      1. Magnetic storage
      2. Optical disc storage
      3. Other digital image archiving issues
    5. Bibliography
  27. 19. Introduction to image quality and system performance
    1. Introduction
    2. Subjective and objective image quality
      1. Image quality assessment
      2. Basic image quality attributes (or dimensions)
      3. The image quality circle
      4. Further image quality attributes
    3. Digital image artefacts
    4. Distortion, fidelity and quality
      1. Image distortion
      2. Image fidelity
      3. Image quality
      4. The use of a reference image
    5. Test charts and test scenes
      1. Test charts
      2. Test scenes
    6. Image psychophysics
      1. Psychometric scales
      2. The psychometric function
      3. Scaling methods
    7. Scene dependency in image quality
      1. Choice of test scenes
    8. Image quality metrics and models
    9. Bibliography
  28. 20. Speed and sensitivity
    1. Sensitivity of imaging systems
      1. Spectral sensitivity of digital cameras
      2. Measurement of the spectral sensitivity of digital cameras
      3. Determination of the colour sensitivity of an unknown photographic emulsion
      4. Wedge spectrograms
      5. Uses of wedge spectrograms
    2. Speed of imaging systems
      1. Methods of expressing speed
      2. Threshold systems
      3. Fixed density
      4. Inertia
      5. Minimum useful gradient
      6. Fractional gradient
      7. Speed systems and standards
    3. ISO speed ratings for colour silver-based materials
      1. Colour negative film
      2. Colour reversal film
    4. Speed of digital systems
      1. Speed based on saturation (Ssat)
      2. Speed based on noise (Snoise)
      3. Standard output sensitivity (SOS)
      4. Recommended exposure index (REI)
      5. Digital camera ISO settings
    5. Typical sensitivities of film and CCD devices and speed ratings in practice
    6. Bibliography
  29. 21. Tone reproduction
    1. Theory of tone reproduction
      1. Transfer functions and gamma
      2. Overall transfer function and overall gamma
      3. Subjective tone reproduction, optimum gamma and viewing conditions
      4. Quadrant diagram
    2. Tone reproduction of imaging devices and image encoding systems
      1. CRT display transfer function
      2. Liquid crystal display (LCD) transfer function
      3. Measuring display transfer functions
      4. Transfer functions of digital acquisition devices
      5. Measuring acquisition device transfer functions
      6. Image encoding: sRGB, Adobe RGB and JPEG transfer functions
      7. Transfer functions of printers
    3. Other measures related to tone and contrast
      1. Dynamic range and contrast ratio
      2. Contrast in uniform areas, test targets and images
    4. Non-linear quantization, bit-depth requirements and gamma correction
    5. Bibliography
  30. 22. Photographic colour reproduction
    1. Introduction
      1. Complementary pairs of colours
    2. Colour photographic processes
      1. Additive colour photography
      2. Subtractive processes
      3. Integral tripacks
      4. Formation of subtractive image dyes
    3. Colour sensitometry
      1. Negative–positive colour
      2. Reversal colour
    4. Colour photographic materials
      1. Location of colour formers
    5. Colour processing
      1. Reversal process
      2. Negative–positive process
      3. Prints from transparencies
    6. Enhancement of colour reproduction
    7. Colorimetry of photographic images
    8. Bibliography
  31. 23. Digital colour reproduction
    1. Introduction
    2. Colour space and colour encoding
    3. Classification of colour spaces
      1. RGB (red, green, blue)
      2. CMY(K) (cyan, magenta, yellow, black)
      3. HSL (hue, saturation, lightness) – and similar
      4. YCC (luminance, chrominance 1, chrominance 2) – and similar
      5. CIE colour spaces
      6. Colorimetric colour spaces
      7. Colour appearance spaces
      8. Device dependent colour spaces
    4. Image state
      1. Sensor colour encoding
      2. Scene-referred colour encoding
      3. Output-referred colour encoding
      4. Original-referred colour encoding
    5. Standard colour space and colour space encodings
      1. sRGB (standard RGB) and sRGB-related colour space encodings
      2. sYCC and sYCC-related
      3. ROMM RGB and RIMM RGB
      4. Adobe RGB 1998
    6. Device colour characterization
      1. Physical models
      2. Numerical models
      3. Regression
      4. Look-up tables with interpolation
      5. Evaluation of the characterization model
    7. Characterization of displays
    8. Characterization of digital input devices
    9. Gamut mapping
      1. Gamut mapping aims
      2. Gamut mapping techniques
    10. Bibliography
  32. 24. Noise, sharpness, resolution and information
    1. Introduction
    2. Image noise
      1. Causes of noise in an image
    3. Photographic noise
      1. Graininess
      2. Factors affecting the graininess of prints
      3. Granularity
      4. Factors affecting negative granularity
    4. Variation of granularity with density
    5. Quantifying image noise
      1. Variance
      2. Estimating σ2
      3. Selwyn’s law
      4. The autocorrelation function
      5. The noise power spectrum
      6. Relationships between noise measures
      7. Practical considerations for the autocorrelation function and the noise power spectrum
      8. Using the autocorrelation function
      9. Direct Fourier transformation of noise samples
      10. Signal-to-noise ratio
    6. Electronic system noise
    7. Resolution, sharpness and MTF
      1. Resolving power of photographic systems
      2. Measuring modulation transfer functions
      3. Wave recording – sine-wave method
      4. Wave recording – square-wave methods
      5. Edge input method
      6. Slanted edge method
      7. MTF correction
      8. Resolving power and MTF for optical systems
      9. Sharpness, MTF and image quality
    8. Detective quantum efficiency (DQE)
      1. General considerations
      2. DQE for the photographic process
      3. DQE for a CCD or CMOS imaging array
      4. DQE and signal-to-noise ratio
    9. Information theory
      1. Information capacity of images
    10. Bibliography
  33. 25. Digital image workflow
    1. Imaging chains and image workflow
    2. Principles guiding effective workflow
    3. Workflow approach
    4. Resolution and the digital imaging chain
      1. Interpolation
      2. Interpolation methods and associated artefacts
      3. Interpolation and image workflow
      4. Calculating required resolution for image output
    5. Bit depth: 8-bit versus 16-bit imaging
    6. Colour management
      1. Colour workflow
    7. File formats
      1. Image acquisition
      2. RAW capture and workflow
      3. Image editing
      4. Image output
      5. Image archiving
    8. Image optimization workflow
    9. Workflow examples
      1. 1. Commercial photography
      2. 2. Forensic imaging
      3. 3. Medical imaging
    10. Acknowledgements
    11. Bibliography
  34. 26. Colour management systems
    1. Introduction
    2. Colour management tasks
    3. Closed-loop versus open-loop colour management
    4. The International Color Consortium (ICC)
    5. ICC colour management architecture
    6. The profile connection space (PCS)
    7. Rendering intents
      1. The ICC perceptual intent reference medium and reference viewing conditions
    8. ICC profiles
    9. Using profiles
    10. Profile processing models
    11. Profile structure
      1. Structure of device profiles
      2. Structure of colour space conversion profiles
    12. Creating custom device profiles
      1. Display profiles
      2. Input profiles
      3. Scanner profiling
      4. Digital camera profiling
      5. Using camera profiles
      6. Output profiles
    13. Colour management workflow
      1. Colour rendering options
      2. Early-binding versus late-binding workflow
      3. RGB and CMYK workflows
      4. Using an intermediate colour space
      5. Proofing and soft-proofing images
    14. Bibliography
  35. 27. Spatial image processing
    1. Introduction
    2. Background
      1. Structure of the digital image
      2. Implementation of spatial domain processes
      3. Linear systems theory
    3. Discrete convolution
    4. Point processing operations: intensity transformations
      1. Brightness and contrast changes using linear transformation functions
      2. Piecewise linear functions
      3. Image thresholding and quantization
      4. Power-law transformations: gamma correction
    5. Point processing: multiple image operations
      1. Enhancement using arithmetic operations
      2. Enhancement using logic operations
    6. Point processing: statistical operations
      1. The image histogram
      2. Probability density function and probability distribution function
      3. Histogram slide and stretch
      4. Histogram equalization
    7. Point processing: geometric transformations
    8. Neighbourhood processing: spatial filtering techniques
    9. Linear filtering
      1. Properties of linear filters
    10. Types of linear filters and their applications
      1. Smoothing spatial filters
      2. Edge detection and sharpening spatial filters
    11. Non-linear spatial filtering
      1. Median filters
      2. Minimum and maximum filters
    12. Bibliography
  36. 28. Digital image processing in the frequency domain
    1. Introduction
    2. Fourier series and transform revisited
    3. Fast Fourier transform (FFT)
    4. Imaging equation revisited
    5. Linear spatial filtering (convolution)
    6. Frequency-domain filtering
      1. Low-pass filtering
      2. High-pass filtering
      3. High-boost filter
    7. Band-pass and band-Stop filters
    8. Image restoration
      1. Inverse filtering
      2. Optimal or Wiener filtering
      3. Maximum entropy reconstruction
      4. Interactive restoration
      5. Extended depth of field (EDOF)
    9. Wavelet transform
      1. Discrete wavelet transform
    10. Bibliography
  37. 29. Image compression
    1. Introduction
    2. Uncompressed image file sizes
    3. Image data and information
    4. Basis of compression
      1. Types of redundancy
      2. Measuring compression rate
      3. Scene dependency and compression
    5. Information theory
      1. Entropy and image structure
      2. Shannon’s theorem
    6. Image compression models
    7. Lossless compression
      1. Lossless compression methods
      2. Reducing spatial redundancy
      3. Reducing coding redundancy: variable-length coding
    8. Lossy compression
    9. Evaluating lossy compression
      1. Distortion metrics
      2. Alternative assessment methods
    10. Lossy compression methods
      1. Quantization
    11. Lossy compression standards
      1. Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard
      2. JPEG 2000 standard
    12. Bibliography
  38. Appendix A
  39. Appendix B
  40. Index