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The Linux Command Line by William E. Shotts Jr.

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Chapter 1. What Is the Shell?

When we speak of the command line, we are really referring to the shell. The shell is a program that takes keyboard commands and passes them to the operating system to carry out. Almost all Linux distributions supply a shell program from the GNU Project called bash. The name bash is an acronym for Bourne Again Shell, a reference to the fact that bash is an enhanced replacement for sh, the original Unix shell program written by Steve Bourne.

Terminal Emulators

When using a graphical user interface, we need another program called a terminal emulator to interact with the shell. If we look through our desktop menus, we will probably find one. KDE uses konsole and GNOME uses gnome-terminal, though it’s likely called simply ...

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