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The Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Handbook

Book Description

Although Lean and Six Sigma appear to be quite different, when used together they have shown to deliver unprecedented improvements to quality and profitability. The Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Handbook: Tools and Methods for Process Acceleration explains how to integrate these seemingly dissimilar approaches to increase production speed while decreasing variations and costs in your organization.

Presenting problem-solving tools you can use to immediately determine the sources of the problems in your organization, the book is based on a recent survey that analyzed Six Sigma tools to determine which are the most beneficial. Although it focuses on the most commonly used tools, it also includes coverage of those used a minimum of two times on every five Six Sigma projects.

Filled with diagrams of the tools you’ll need, the book supplies a comprehensive framework to help you for organize and process the vast amount of information currently available about Lean, quality management, and continuous improvement process applications. It begins with an overview of Six Sigma, followed by little-known tips for using Lean Six Sigma (LSS) effectively. It examines the LSS quality system, its supporting organization, and the different roles involved.

Identifying the theories required to support a contemporary Lean system, the book describes the new skills and technologies that you need to master to be certified at the Lean Six Sigma Black Belt (LSSBB) level. It also covers the advanced non-statistical and statistical tools that are new to the LSSBB body of knowledge.

Presenting time-tested insights of a distinguished group of authors, the book provides the understanding required to select the solutions that best fit your organization's aim and culture. It also includes exercises, worksheets, and templates you can easily customize to create your own handbook for continuous process improvement.

Designed to make the methodologies you choose easy to follow, the book will help Black Belts and Senseis better engage their employees, as well as provide an integrated and visual process management structure for reporting and sustaining continuous improvement breakthroughs and initiatives.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. About the Authors
  7. SECTION 1 Overview of Lean Six Sigma
    1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methodology
      1. In a Nutshell
      2. Introduction
        1. The Notion of Standing upon the Shoulders of Giants
        2. LSS Cultural Building Blocks
        3. Connecting the Tools with Engineering Goals
      3. What Came First—Six Sigma or Lean?
      4. Technical Competency Levels
      5. LSS Belt Levels
        1. Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt (LSSMBB)
        2. Lean Six Sigma Black Belt (LSSBB)
        3. Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (LSSGB)
        4. Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt (LSSYB)
        5. Lean Six Sigma Blue Belt
      6. Five Phases of an LSS Improvement Project
      7. Summary
    2. Chapter 2 Process Improvement and Lean Six Sigma
      1. In a Nutshell
      2. Introduction
      3. An LSS Quality Focus on the Business Process
      4. Some Basic Definitions
      5. Objectives of Process Improvement
      6. Cross-Functional Focus
      7. Critical Success Factors
      8. Nature of LSS Process Improvement
        1. Advantages of LSS Process Improvement
      9. Determining Process Ownership
        1. The Nature of Business Processes
        2. Management’s Traditional Focus
        3. Cross-Functional Focus
      10. Process Ownership
        1. The Process Owner
        2. The Process Management Committee
        3. The Process Quality Team
      11. Selection, Responsibilities, and Authority of the Process Owner
        1. Selection of the Process Owner
        2. Responsibilities of the Process Owner
        3. Authority of the Process Owner
      12. Process Definition and the Process Model
        1. Definition of Process Mission and Scope
      13. Summary
      14. Exercise
  8. SECTION 2 The Lean Journey into Process Improvement
    1. Chapter 3 Waste Identification
      1. In a Nutshell
      2. Overview
      3. What Is Variation?
        1. How Do We Chart Variation?
        2. Why Is Understanding and Controlling Variation So Important?
      4. What Is Waste?
        1. Defining the Value-Added Work Components
      5. How Does Waste Creep into a Process?
      6. The Power of Observation
      7. Seeing with New Eyes
        1. Waste 1: Overproduction
          1. What Causes Overproduction?
          2. How to Identify Overproduction
        2. Waste 2: Excess Inventories
          1. What Causes Excess Inventory?
          2. How to Identify Excess Inventory
        3. Waste 3: Defects
          1. What Causes Defects?
          2. How to Identify Defects
        4. Waste 4: Extra Processing
          1. What Causes Processing Waste?
          2. How to Identify Processing Waste
        5. Waste 5: Waiting
          1. What Causes Waiting Waste?
          2. How to Identify Waiting Waste
        6. Waste 6: Motion
          1. What Causes Motion Waste?
          2. How to Identify Motion Waste
        7. Waste 7: Transportation
          1. What Causes Transportation Waste?
          2. How to Identify Transportation Waste
        8. Waste 8: Underutilized Employees
          1. What Causes Underutilized Employees Waste?
          2. How to Identify Underutilized Employees Waste
        9. Waste 9: Behavior
          1. How to Identify Behavior Waste
      8. Summary
    2. Chapter 4 Lean Concepts, Tools, and Methods
      1. Overview
      2. Traditional Organization Operational Philosophy
      3. Lean Operational Philosophy
      4. Lean Management Concepts
        1. Waste
        2. Value-Added Activities
        3. No-Value-Added Activities
        4. Business-Value-Added Activities
        5. Waste Identification
        6. Waste Elimination
        7. Value Stream
        8. Value Stream Management
        9. Continuous Flow
        10. Pull Systems
        11. Point of Use Storage
        12. Quality at the Source
        13. Just-in-Time
        14. Kaizen
        15. 5M’s—Materials, Machines, Manpower, Methods, and Measurements
        16. Key Process Input Variables (KPIVs)
        17. Key Process Output Variables (KPOVs)
      5. Lean Tools
        1. 5S Workplace Organization and Standardization
          1. Just the Facts
          2. 5S Means Action
          3. Common Omissions When Implementing 5S
        2. Overall Equipment Effectiveness
          1. Just the Facts
          2. How to Use OEE
          3. Applying OEE in Nonmanufacturing Environments
        3. Mistake Proofing
          1. Just the Facts
          2. How to Use Mistake Proofing
        4. Cellular Manufacturing
          1. Just the Facts
          2. How to Create Manufacturing Cells
        5. Kanban
          1. Just the Facts
          2. How to Use Kanban
        6. Value Stream Mapping
          1. Just the Facts
          2. Managing with Maps
        7. Visual Controls
          1. Just the Facts
          2. How to Use Visual Controls
      6. The Power of Lean Concepts and Lean Tools
        1. Composite U-Cell Case Study
          1. Lean Six Sigma Concepts and Tools Used
      7. Summary
    3. Chapter 5 Three Faces of Change—Kaizen, Kaikaku, and Kakushin
      1. In a Nutshell
      2. Introduction
        1. Resistance to Change
        2. Fear of the Unknown
        3. Measurement Systems
        4. Beliefs
      3. Overcoming Resistance to Change
        1. Leaving Old Beliefs Behind
        2. Considering New Possibilities
        3. Emergence of LSS
      4. Three Faces of Change
        1. Kaizen—Continuous Improvement
        2. Kaizen and You Method
        3. Kaizen for Process Troubleshooting
          1. Step 1: Go to Gemba
          2. Step 2: Conduct Gembutsu
          3. Step 3: Take Temporary Countermeasures “on the Spot”
          4. Step 4: Find Root Causes
          5. Step 5: Standardize to Prevent Recurrence
        4. Kaizen Teams
        5. Possible Target Areas for Kaizen Teams
        6. Preparing for Kaizen
        7. Team Member Roles in Kaizen
        8. Overcoming Obstacles during Kaizen
      5. Kaikaku—Transformation of Mind
        1. How Do We Recognize Kaikaku (Transformation of Mind)?
        2. Kaikaku in Cell Design
        3. Kaikaku in Facility Layouts
      6. Kakushin (Innovation)
        1. The 20-20 Innovation Process
      7. Summary
  9. SECTION 3 SSBB Overview
    1. Chapter 6 On Integrating LSS and DMAIC with DMADV
      1. In a Nutshell
      2. Overview
      3. Goals of Lean DMADV
        1. Lean Design
      4. Goals of DMAIC/DMADV
        1. Overview of How DMAIC Works
        2. Overview of How DMADV Works
      5. Comparing DMAIC and DMADV
      6. Integrating Lean with DMAIC/DMADV
        1. Root Cause Analysis and Lean
        2. Groups of Root Cause Analysis Tools
      7. Summary
  10. SECTION 4 LSSBB Advanced Nonstatistical Tools
    1. Chapter 7 Black Belt Nonstatistical Tools (A through M)
      1. Introduction
      2. 5S
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
      3. Benchmarking of Processes
        1. Just the Facts
        2. What Will Benchmarking Do for You?
        3. History of Benchmarking
        4. Types of Benchmarking
          1. Internal Benchmarking
          2. External Benchmarking
        5. Guidelines and Tips
        6. What Are the Primary Reasons for Using Process Benchmarking?
          1. The What
          2. The How
        7. The Five Phases of Internal and External Combined Benchmarking Process
        8. Examples
        9. Additional Reading
      4. Bureaucracy Elimination Methods
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Process-Focused Approach
        3. Incident-Focused Approach
        4. Examples
          1. Example 1
          2. Example 2
          3. Example 3
        5. Additional Reading
      5. Conflict Resolution
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
      6. Critical to Quality
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Critical to Quality (CTQ) Characteristics
        3. Example
        4. Additional Reading
      7. Cycle Time Analysis and Reduction
        1. Just the Facts
          1. Applications of Cycle Time Analysis and Reduction
          2. Cycle Time Analysis and Reduction Process
        2. Examples
        3. Additional Reading
      8. Fast-Action Solution Technique (FAST)
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Examples
        3. Additional Reading
      9. Foundation of Six Sigma (Minimizing Variation)
        1. Just the Facts
        2. What Does “Good Enough” Mean?
        3. Example
        4. Additional Reading
      10. Just-in-Time (JIT)
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
      11. Matrix Diagram/Decision Matrix
        1. Just the Facts
          1. L-Shaped Matrix
          2. T-Shaped Matrix
          3. Guidelines and Tips
        2. Examples
        3. Additional Reading
      12. Measurements
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Principles of Good Measure
        3. Examples
          1. Quality Measurement
        4. Additional Reading
    2. Chapter 8 Black Belt nonstatistical Tools (O Through Q)
      1. Organizational Change Management (OCM)
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Seven Phases of OCM
          1. Phase I: Defining Current State Pain
          2. Phase II: Establishing a Clear Vision of the Future State Solution
          3. Phase III: Defining Change Roles
          4. Phase IV: Mapping Change Roles
          5. Phase V: Defining the Degree of Change Required
          6. Phase VI: Developing the Organizational Change Management Plan
          7. Phase VII: Implementing the Change Management Plan
        3. Examples
        4. Additional Reading
      2. Pareto Diagrams
        1. Just the Facts
          1. The Pareto Principle (80/20 Rule)
          2. Uses of Pareto Diagrams
          3. Classifications of Data
          4. Constructing a Pareto Diagram
        2. Example
      3. Prioritization Matrix
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
      4. Project Management (PM)
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Project Management Knowledge Areas
          1. Project Integration Management
          2. Project Scope Management
          3. Project Time Management
          4. Project Cost Management
          5. Project Quality Management
          6. Project Human Resource Management
          7. Project Communications Management
          8. Project Risk Management
          9. Project Procurement Management
        3. How OCM Can Help
          1. Estimate Task Effort and Duration
          2. Develop the Schedule
        4. Project Management Software
          1. Project Management Software Selection
          2. PMBOK Tools and Techniques
      5. Examples
      6. Additional Reading
      7. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">Prepared by Dave Farrell</i>
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Using QFD
        3. Voice of the Customer
        4. Part Deployment Phase
        5. The Process Plan and Quality Plan Matrices
        6. The Roof of the House of Quality
        7. Operating Instructions
        8. Summary
        9. Examples
        10. Additional Reading
    3. Chapter 9 Black Belt Nonstatistical Tools (R through Z)
      1. Introduction
      2. Reliability Management System
      3. Just the Facts
        1. Phase I: Defining Reliability Requirements
        2. Phase II: Designing Reliability into the Item
        3. Phase III: Defining Component Reliability
        4. Phase IV: Calculating the Item’s Reliability
        5. Phase V: Minimizing Manufacturing Degradation
        6. Phase VI: Qualifying the Item
        7. Phase VII: Measuring Customer/Consumer Reliability
        8. Phase VIII: Corrective Action and Database Updating
        9. Examples
        10. Additional Reading
      4. Root Cause Analysis
        1. Just the Facts
        2. How to Do a Root Cause Analysis in Six Steps
        3. Examples
      5. Scatter Diagrams
        1. Just the Facts
          1. Steps to Prepare a Scatter Diagram
        2. Guidelines and Tips
        3. Example
        4. Additional Reading
      6. Selection Matrix (Decision Matrix)
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
      7. SIPOC Diagram
        1. Just the Facts
        2. The SIPOC Approach Expanded
        3. Building a SIPOC Diagram
        4. Example: Mama Mia Case Study
          1. Mama Mia’s SIPOC—Food Storage Process
          2. Mama Mia’s SIPOC—Food Preparation and Order Delivery
      8. SWOT—Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
        1. Just the Facts
        2. The SWOT Matrix
        3. Example
        4. Additional Reading
      9. Takt Time
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
      10. Theory of Constraints (TOC)
        1. Just the Facts
          1. Types of (Internal) Constraints
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
      11. Tree Diagrams
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Examples
        3. Additional Reading
      12. Value Stream Mapping
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
        3. Additional Reading
  11. SECTION 5 LSSBB Advanced Statistical Tools
    1. Chapter 10 Advanced Statistical Tools
      1. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)—One-Way
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
      2. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)—Two-Way
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Major Considerations
        3. Example
      3. Box Plots
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
      4. Confidence Intervals
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
          1. Confidence Interval for the Mean
          2. Confidence Interval for the Standard Deviation
          3. Confidence Interval for the Proportion Defective
      5. Data Transformations
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Data Transformation Types
          1. Standard Transformation Functions
        3. Example
          1. Application Cookbook
      6. Design of Experiments
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Steps in Designing an Experiment
        3. Principles of an Experimental Design
        4. Setting Up the Appropriate Experiment
        5. Analysis (of Means and Variance) Methodologies
          1. Analysis of Means
          2. Paired Comparison
          3. Analysis of Variance Methodology
        6. One-Way and Two-Way ANOVA
          1. One-Way ANOVA
          2. Example Experiment 1
          3. Example Experiment 2
          4. Two-Way ANOVA
        7. Types of Experimental Designs
        8. Applications of DoE
        9. DoE Steps
        10. Experimental Objectives
        11. Select and Scale the Process Variables
        12. Design Guidelines
        13. A Typical DoE Checklist
        14. The Iterative Approach to DoE
        15. Experimental Assumptions
          1. Is the Measurement System Capable?
          2. Is the Process Stable?
          3. Are the Residuals Well Behaved?
          4. Interactions
        16. Categories of Experimental Designs
          1. Three-Factor, Three-Level Experiment
          2. Randomized Block Plans
          3. Latin Square Designs
          4. Graeco-Latin Designs
          5. Plackett-Burman Designs
          6. Taguchi Designs
          7. Mixture Designs
          8. Simplex-Lattice Designs
          9. Steepest Ascent/Descent
          10. Response Surfaces
          11. Evolutionary Operations (EVOP)
        17. When to Use Which Design
        18. Project Strategies
          1. Data Analysis
          2. Experimental Designs
          3. Response Surface Designs
        19. Project Strategy Decision Table
        20. Bibliography
        21. Background References
      7. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
          1. Approaches to Attribute MSA
      8. Method of Least Squares
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
      9. Multivari Charts
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
      10. Nonparametric Statistical Tests
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
          1. Sign Test for the Median
          2. One-Sided Wilcoxon Test
          3. Two-Sample Mann-Whitney
          4. Kruskal-Wallis
          5. Mood’s Median Test
          6. Friedman Test for a Randomized Block Design
      11. Populations and Samples
        1. Just the Facts
          1. Uncertainty in the Mean—Conclusions
          2. Data Defined
          3. Summary of Data Types
          4. Process Measurements Summary
        2. Example
      12. Regression Analysis
        1. Just the Facts
          1. Simple Linear Regression
          2. Multiple Linear Regression
          3. Curvilinear Regression
          4. Other Linear Regression Models
          5. Caution
        2. Example
      13. Rolled-Throughput Yield
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Example
          1. Calculating Process Sigma
      14. Taguchi Method
        1. Just the Facts
        2. Taguchi Quality Definitions
          1. Ideal Quality
          2. Robust Design
          3. Quality Loss Function Fundamental Concepts
        3. Example
          1. Traditional View of the Loss Function
          2. Taguchi Approach
          3. Specify a Target
          4. The Quadratic Loss Function (QFL)
          5. Understanding the Quality Characteristic
          6. Observing the Slope
          7. Determining Customer Impact
          8. The Cost of Not Being on Target
      15. Validation
        1. Just the Facts
          1. The Failure Modalities
        2. Some Risk Assessment Tools
        3. Guidelines and Tips
        4. Example
  12. Appendix A: Glossary
  13. Appendix B: The Six Sigma Body of Knowledge
  14. Appendix C: Six Sigma Green Belt Tools