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The Java EE 6 Tutorial: Basic Concepts, Fourth Edition by Chinmayee Srivathsa, Kim Haase, Devika Gollapudi, Ian Evans, Eric Jendrock

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Chapter 10. Java Servlet Technology

Shortly after the Web began to be used for delivering services, service providers recognized the need for dynamic content. Applets, one of the earliest attempts toward this goal, focused on using the client platform to deliver dynamic user experiences. At the same time, developers also investigated using the server platform for the same purpose. Initially, Common Gateway Interface (CGI) server-side scripts were the main technology used to generate dynamic content. Although widely used, CGI scripting technology had many shortcomings, including platform dependence and lack of scalability. To address these limitations, Java Servlet technology was created as a portable way to provide dynamic, user-oriented content. ...

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