You are previewing The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies, 7 Volume Set.
O'Reilly logo
The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies, 7 Volume Set

Book Description

The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies brings together over 200 critical essays to redraw the boundaries of this rapidly evolving and dynamically complex area. Global in scope, wide-ranging in its inclusion of topics, and edited by an international team of the world's best scholars, this is the definitive resource for the field.

  • Includes more than 200 essays written by over 230 leading and emerging scholars from across the globe

  • Arranged across 7 thematic volumes edited by an international team of expert scholars

  • Accessible volume introductions provide overviews of key themes

  • The most definitive resource available in this complex, heterogeneous, multi-methodological and multi-theoretical interdisciplinary field

  • Explores media as it is being practiced, produced, and analyzed in Asia, Africa, the Americas, Australia, and Europe

  • All volumes pay close attention to issues of gender and ethnicity so necessary to understanding contemporary media

  • Probes the many dimensions of the subject: history, production, content, audiences, effects, and futures

  • Table of Contents

    1. The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies, 7 Volume Set
      1. Volume I
        1. Title Page
        2. Copyright
        3. Contents of Volume I: Media History and the Foundations of Media Studies
        4. Full Contents
        5. Contributors to Volume I
        6. General Editor's Acknowledgments
        7. Media Studies
          1. Media Studies Today
          2. Editors and Volumes
          3. NOTES
          4. REFERENCES
        8. Introduction
          1. Approaches
          2. Moments
          3. The Foundations of Media Studies
          4. Conclusion
          5. NOTES
          6. REFERENCES
        9. PART 1: APPROACHES
          1. 1: Left Behind
            1. The High Modernism of Alphabetic Literacy: Walter J. Ong
            2. The End of the Great Divide
            3. Media Structuralism in its Laocoön (Mannerist) Phase: Innis
            4. What was the Structuralist Appeal?
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            6. REFERENCES
          2. 2: The Two Marxes
            1. The Marxian Tradition
            2. Political Economy
            3. Communication History in Political Economy
            4. The “Other” Marx
            5. Expansion of a Cultural Approach
            6. The Culture of the Digital Sublime
            7. Bridging the Divide
            8. REFERENCES
          3. 3: The Conditions of Media's Possibility
            1. Foucault's Legacy and Media History
            2. Friedrich Kittler and Media's Brute Facticity
            3. Philosophy of Science and Instrumentality
            4. Cultural Studies and Media Governmentality
            5. Agamben and the Apparatus
            6. Questions for the Apparatus
            7. Conclusion
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
          4. 4: Race/Ethnicity in Media History
            1. Why “Race/Ethnicity”?
            2. Rediscovering Roots
            3. Documenting Discrimination
            4. Multiculturalisms and National Identit(ies)
            5. Public Memory, Race and Media
            6. Remembering Race/Ethnicity
            7. REFERENCES
          5. 5: Approaches to Gender and Sexuality in Media History
            1. Gender, Sexuality, and Media
            2. Women as Media Producers
            3. Advocacy and Activist Media
            4. Gender and Sexuality as Media Content
            5. The Gendered Audience and Consumer
            6. Conclusion
            7. REFERENCES
          6. 6: The History of the Book
            1. Problematical Definitions
            2. Origins in the United States
            3. American Academic Politics and Founding Motives
            4. French Origins, US Antecedents, and McLuhan-Eisenstein Precedents
            5. Approaches to Production
            6. Approaches to Distribution
            7. Approaches to Consumption
            8. The Future HOB
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
        10. PART 2: MOMENTS
          1. 7: Writing
            1. I
            2. II
            3. III
            4. IV
            5. V
            6. REFERENCES
          2. 8: The Enlightenment and the Bourgeois Public Sphere (Through the Eyes of a London Merchant-Writer)
            1. Why the Focus on London?
            2. Daniel Defoe, London Merchant and Writer
            3. The Habermasian Utopia
            4. The Less Utopian Reality of the London Coffeehouse
            5. What “Bourgeois” Public Sphere?
            6. The Not-So-Ideal World of the Early London Press
            7. Public Opinion and the Policies of Renaissance Venice
            8. REFERENCES
          3. 9: Journalism History: North America
            1. Penny Press
            2. Partisan Press
            3. Democratization of the Daily Press
            4. Declarations of Press Independence
            5. Consolidation
            6. Media Corporations
            7. The Republican Century
            8. REFERENCES
          4. 10: Journalism History
            1. Prehistory of Journalism
            2. The Corresponding Journalism of the Early Press
            3. The Development of Opinion Journalism
            4. Commercialization in the Nineteenth Century
            5. The Professionalization of Journalism
            6. Between Political Instrumentalization and Technical Innovation: Journalismin the Twentieth Century
            7. Prospects: Journalism in the Twenty-First Century
            8. REFERENCES
          5. 11: Journalism History
            1. Genealogy of Korean Journalism
            2. The Birth of the Daily Newspaper: Chobo
            3. Origins of the Modern Newspaper
            4. The Long Road to Press Freedom: State Intervention in Journalism
            5. Media Policies After Democratization
            6. The Media Policy of Kim Young-Sam (1993–1997)
            7. Commercialization of Journalism
            8. Changing Journalists, Changing Audience
            9. Demystification of Watchdog Journalism: Journalists Running for Political Power
            10. Changes of Audience: Decline of Newspaper Readership and Evaluation
            11. Journalism in Digitization: Where to Go?
            12. History of Journalism Studies in Korea
            13. Key Issues in Journalism Studies in the 2000s
            14. Rethinking Press Freedom in Korea
            15. NOTES
            16. REFERENCES
          6. 12: Journalism History
            1. Prehistory of Journalismin Ancient China
            2. The Nineteenth-Century Rise of a Modern Press in Late Ch'ing China
            3. 1900–1949: Journalism for Revolution
            4. 1949–1978: Journalism as the Party's Mouthpiece
            5. After 1978: Journalism Between Partisanism and Commercialism
            6. REFERENCES
            7. FURTHER READING
          7. 13: Communications Networks in the United States
            1. NOTES
            2. REFERENCES
          8. 14: “Quickening Urgency”
            1. Early Pre-Wire and Wire News Services
            2. The Inland Telegraph and Wire Services
            3. Monopolies in Technology and News
            4. The Atlantic Cable and News
            5. European News Agencies
            6. The European News Cartel and Wire Services in the United States
            7. Conclusion
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
          9. 15: Photography
            1. Portraits
            2. Identity Documents
            3. Legal Evidence
            4. Print Media
            5. Conclusion
            6. REFERENCES
          10. 16: Moving Images
            1. Non-Theatrical: The Other History of Showing and Seeing Films
            2. NOTES
            3. REFERENCES
          11. 17: Sound Histories
            1. Fields of Concern
            2. Points of Reference: Analytic Terms for Socio-Technical Systems
            3. Fidelity
            4. Conclusion
            5. REFERENCES
          12. 18: Television
            1. Mass Television
            2. The TV Problem
            3. Niche Television
            4. Post-Television?
            5. NOTE
            6. REFERENCES
          13. 19: The Culture Industries
            1. Introduction
            2. Beyond Passive and Active to a Revolutionary Paradigm Shift
            3. Democratic Diversity and Industrial Formations
            4. Globalization and Media Conglomerates
            5. Deregulation and Neoliberalism
            6. Return to Industry
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
            9. FURTHER READING
          14. 20: Advertising and Consumer Culture
            1. Introduction
            2. The Rise of National Advertising and a Modern Consumer Culture
            3. Early Consumer Reactions
            4. The Struggle Over Federal Regulation of Advertising in the 1930s
            5. Advertising in World War II
            6. The Postwar Era
            7. Consumer Resistance in the 1960s, 1970s, and Beyond
            8. Conclusion
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
          15. 21: The Rise of the Professional Communicator
            1. Establishing the Early Professions
            2. Professional Organization of Knowledge
            3. Communication Work Becomes Professional
            4. Consequences of Professionalism
            5. REFERENCES
          16. 22: The New World Information and Communication Order
            1. Birth in a Decolonization Offensive
            2. Consolidation in an Information War
            3. Decline in a Corporate Offensive
            4. Freeze in Globalization and Civil Society
            5. Reflections and Lessons
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          17. 23: Text, Translation, and the End of the Unified Press
            1. Introduction
            2. Connection to Computing History
            3. Translating Information
            4. A Theory of Language
            5. Theory Into Practice
            6. Systems for Editing
            7. First Attempts at Electronic Distribution
            8. Digital Layout and Digital Distribution
            9. The Consequences of Completing the Chain
            10. The Transformed Newspaper
            11. NOTE
            12. REFERENCES
          18. 24: Media and Mobility
            1. The Relevance of Geography
            2. Biased Media
            3. Rhythms of Mobility
            4. Mocio-Economics
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
        11. PART 3: FOUNDATIONS
          1. 25: Communication and Democracy
            1. REFERENCES
          2. 26: The Chicago School of Sociology and Mass Communication Research
            1. Introduction: Situating the Chicago School of Sociology
            2. The History of the Chicago School
            3. Rejection
            4. Incorporation
            5. The Committee on Communication, 1947–1960
            6. Rediscovery
            7. Conclusion
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
          3. 27: Propaganda Studies
            1. Progressivism, Publicity, and the Committee on Public Information
            2. Postwar Discourses: From Critique to Application
            3. Neutralizing the Menace: Social Science and the Behavioral Approach
            4. Propaganda and Media Effects
            5. Propaganda, Education, and Policy
            6. Conclusion
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
          4. 28: Frankfurt School, Media, and the Culture Industry
            1. The Culture Industry and Debates over Mass Culture
            2. From World War II to the Postwar Epoch
            3. Habermas, the Public Sphere, and the Media
            4. Critique and Contemporary Relevance
            5. REFERENCES
          5. 29: The Rise and Fall of the Limited Effects Model
            1. “Limited Effects”: Birth in Death
            2. Birthing the “Two-Step Flow”: The People's Choice and Its Columbian Rivals
            3. Personal Influence and Two-Step Flows in the 1950s
            4. Consolidation and Challenge in the 1960s
            5. Limited Effects Since the 1980s
            6. Conclusion
            7. NOTE
            8. REFERENCES
          6. 30: The Political Economy of Communication
            1. NOTES
            2. REFERENCES
          7. 31: Unmasking Class and Tradition
            1. Introduction
            2. Some Preliminary Points
            3. Reading the British Tradition in Cultural Studies
            4. Re-Narrating Class and Cultural Studies
            5. Deconstructing Demystification
            6. Revisiting the Operationalization of the Category of Class
            7. New Frames of Reference and Affiliation in Cinematic and Literary Production
            8. Narrating Class and Tradition in the Literary Imagination
            9. Conclusion: The New Imperatives of Globalization and the Predicament of Cultural Studies
            10. REFERENCES
        12. Index
      2. Volume II
        1. Title Page
        2. Copyright
        3. Contents of Volume II: Media Production
        4. Full Contents
        5. Contributors to Volume II
        6. General Editor's Acknowledgments
        7. Media Studies
          1. Media Studies Today
          2. Editors and Volumes
          3. NOTES
          4. REFERENCES
        8. Making Media Production Visible
          1. Structure and Agency in Media Production Research
          2. The Zeitgeist for Media Production
          3. Production Regimes and Infrastructures
          4. The Cultural Industries and the Organization of Production
          5. Product and Content Flows
          6. Production Work and Practices
          7. Production Cultures
          8. The Ethics of Production
          9. Producing the Field
          10. NOTES
          11. REFERENCES
        9. PART 1: PRODUCTION REGIMES AND INFRASTRUCTURES
          1. 1: The Governance of Communication and Culture
            1. Introduction: The Changing Landscape of Media and Culture
            2. Global Regulatory Shifts: Priorities and Tensions
            3. Hegemonies of Cultural Policy
            4. Noncommercial, Nonprofessional Culture and New Policy Regimes
            5. The Future of Culture
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 2: Media Production and Information Policy
            1. Ideological Aspects of Information Policy
            2. Information Policy and the Balance of Trade
            3. The Replication of the Celestial Jukebox
            4. Alternative Tentacles: The Rollout of European Access Controls
            5. Case Studies: HADOPI and the Digital Economy Act of 2010
            6. Developing Alternative Models for Information Policy
            7. Conclusion
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
            10. FURTHER READING
          3. 3: The Slippery Slopes of “Soft Power”
            1. The MIM-plex, Media Studies and the Academy
            2. Thinking with the MIM-plex
            3. A Powerful Question: Culture, Power, and the Institute for Creative Technologies
            4. Hard Power, Soft Power, and the ICT
            5. Disciplinary Dialogue, Global Security, and the Purview of Production Studies
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          4. 4: Television-Set Production in the Era of Digital TV
            1. Setting the Standard for Digital Television
            2. Creating the Market for DTV while Taming Production Labor
            3. DTV Set Production at the US–Mexico Border
            4. The Ramifications of High-Tech Manufacturing
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          5. 5: Citizenship and Media Ownership
            1. Anti-Corporate Populism and Media Ownership
            2. The Internet and Citizenship as Individual Liberty
            3. Minority Media Ownership and the Cultural Politics of Social Citizenship
            4. Conclusion
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
            8. FURTHER READING
        10. PART 2: THE CULTURAL INDUSTRIES AND THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION
          1. 6: Music in the New Capitalism
            1. Introduction
            2. The New Capitalism
            3. Music in a Neoliberal World
            4. Music in a Networked World
            5. Music in a Globalized World: The Rise of “World Music”
            6. Conclusions
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
            9. FURTHER READING
          2. 7: Whither the Professional Book Publisher in an Era of Distribution on Demand
            1. Publisher Organizations and Responsibilities: Twentieth-Century Shifts
            2. The Rise of Self-Publishing
            3. Professional Facilitators of Amateur Publishers
            4. The Persisting Professional Publisher
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          3. 8: “This Is What I Need, This Is What Will Travel”
            1. Television Program and Changing Value
            2. A Taxonomy of Imperatives
            3. Conclusion
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
            6. FURTHER READING
          4. 9: How Should We Think About Audience Power in the Digital Age?
            1. Media, Audience, and Community
            2. The Transformation of Media Buying
            3. Media Buying and the Exercise of Power
            4. The Long Click, Reputation, and Audience Power
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
            7. FURTHER READING
        11. PART 3: PRODUCT AND CONTENT FLOWS
          1. 10: A Critical Analysis of Cultural Imperialism
            1. Early Theses on Cultural Imperialism
            2. Challenges to Theses of Cultural Imperialism
            3. Critiques of Cultural Imperialism and Globalization Theory
            4. A New Look at Cultural Imperialism
            5. Conclusion
            6. REFERENCES
          2. 11: Hollywood's Presence in Latin America
            1. Historical Overview
            2. The History and Impact of Runaway Productions in Latin America
            3. The Mexican Film Industry from the Late 1990s to the Present
            4. The Argentine Film Industry from the Late 1990s to the Present
            5. SOS (Save Our Screens): Enacting the Screen Quota in Argentina
            6. Co-Production Between Argentina and Spanish Autonomous Communities, Catalonia and Galicia
            7. Conclusion
            8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            9. NOTE
            10. REFERENCES
            11. FURTHER READING
          3. 12: Global Ugly Betty
            1. The International Format Trade
            2. Cultural Proximity and the Production of Global Formats
            3. Method
            4. Study Findings
            5. Concluding Thoughts on Hybrid Formats and Media Production
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
            8. FURTHER READING
          4. 13: The Comings and Goings of Key Scenarios
            1. Anthropologists Turning to the Screen
            2. Evolving Key Scenarios in Kinois Media
            3. Transnational Flows
            4. Nigerian Witchcraft Films
            5. Studying the Flows
            6. Conclusion: TV Serials and Palimpsests of Culture
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
            9. FURTHER READING
        12. PART 4: PRODUCTION WORK AND PRACTICES
          1. 14: Why Has News Production in the United States Remained Stable at a Time of Great Change?
            1. Habits
            2. Investments
            3. Definitions
            4. Conclusion
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          2. 15: The Production of Mediated Performance
            1. Production of Mediated Performance: Research Strands
            2. Production of Mediatized Performance: Four Fields of Inquiry
            3. Performance, Identity, and Society
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
            6. FURTHER READING
          3. 16: Imagination and Censorship, Fiction and Reality
            1. Theoretical Framework and Methods
            2. Context: Reality, Crisis, and Television
            3. Cosita Rica 's Flight
            4. Conclusion
            5. Epilogue
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
            8. FURTHER READING
          4. 17: Distributed Creativity in Film and Television
            1. Introduction
            2. Aggregating Content/Disaggregating Labor in Tentpole TV
            3. Distributed Assistanthood: Dues-Paying Apprentices and “Desk Slaves”
            4. Sourcing Film Market Intelligence: Box Office Data, Tracking, and the Hollywood Stock Exchange
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
            7. FURTHER READING
          5. 18: YouTube Stylo
            1. Dreams of YouTube Writing
            2. Forms of YouTube Writing
            3. Stylo Dreams Deferred
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
        13. PART 5: PRODUCTION CULTURES
          1. 19: Queer Broadcasts
            1. Production Studies, Expanded
            2. Insider Positions
            3. Insider Material on TV
            4. Insider Aesthetics
            5. Safety in Numbers
            6. Queer TV Culture
            7. Conclusion
            8. REFERENCES
          2. 20: Hollywood Elsewhere
            1. Media Geographies: The Politics of Space and Place
            2. Constructing Vancouver as Hollywood North
            3. Media Capitals, Creative Clusters, and Runaway Production: The Case of Haddock Entertainment, Canada
            4. The International Production Ecology
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          3. 21: Transformations and Tactics
            1. Decline
            2. Flexibility
            3. Socially Marginal Status of the Film Industry
            4. Conclusion
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
            7. FURTHER READING
          4. 22: Youth as Cultural Producers/Cultural Productions of Youth
            1. Youth Media Production: Frames of Reference
            2. HYPE: Context and Method of Study
            3. Conclusion
            4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
        14. PART 6: THE ETHICS OF PRODUCTION
          1. 23: “What's TV Good For?”
            1. The Study
            2. Who Are the Producers of Quality Television for Children?
            3. Perceiving Television for Children as a Safe and Relevant Space
            4. Children's TV and Social Change
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          2. 24: Is Media Work Good Work?
            1. Critical Analysis of Creative Labor
            2. The Debate About Creative Work
            3. Toward a Model of Good and Bad Work
            4. Working in Television: Documentary Development
            5. Closing Comments
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          3. 25: Community Media Production
            1. What Are Community Media?
            2. Theorizing the Importance of Production and the Means of Communication
            3. Participants' Motivations for Community Media: Three Examples
            4. Beyond the Limits of Community Media Theories
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
            8. FURTHER READING
          4. 26: Neglected Elements
            1. Production Beyond Consciousness
            2. Labor and Environment in Media Production
            3. The Case of las maquiladoras
            4. Conclusion: Creative Production Is Theft
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
            7. FURTHER READING
        15. Index
      3. Volume III
        1. Title Page
        2. Copyright
        3. Contents of Volume III: Content and Representation
        4. Full Contents
        5. Contributors to Volume III
        6. General Editor's Acknowledgments
        7. Media Studies
          1. Media Studies Today
          2. Editors and Volumes
          3. NOTES
          4. REFERENCES
        8. Technology, Convergence, and Power
          1. Quantitative Analysis of Media Content
          2. Qualitative Analysis of Media Content
          3. Content and Representation
          4. Volume Structure
          5. Introduction to the Chapters
          6. Conclusion
          7. REFERENCES
        9. PART 1: PERSUASION AND INFORMATION
          1. 1: Understanding Hypercommercialized Media Texts
            1. Precedents and Context
            2. Film and Television Entertainment
            3. Sports
            4. Children's Culture
            5. Journalism
            6. Music
            7. The Complex Nature of the Hypercommercial Text
            8. Commercial Paratexts and Contexts in 30 Rock
            9. Conclusion: Interactive Product Placement and Antimarketing Blowback
            10. REFERENCES
          2. 2: And Now a Click from Our Sponsors
            1. Television Marketplace and Policy Changes in the United States
            2. Historical Comparisons of Non-Program Content in Children's Television in the United States
            3. From Old to New Media: Digital Natives in their Digital World
            4. Discussion and Conclusion
            5. REFERENCES
          3. 3: Women's Portraits Present in Print Fashion Advertisements
            1. Literature Review: Studying the Portrayal of Women in Advertising
            2. The Role of the Media in the Crystallization of Stereotypes
            3. A Study of Fashion Brand Advertising
            4. Findings
            5. Discussion and Conclusions
            6. NOTE
            7. REFERENCES
          4. 4: Marketing Militarism to Moms
            1. Governing Gender through Brands
            2. The Politics of Motherhood in the Post-9/11 World
            3. Conclusion
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
          5. 5: From Second-Wave to Poststructuralist Feminism
            1. Hegemonic Masculinity and the Sports/Media Complex
            2. Sports Feminism
            3. Feminism and Our Research on the Sports/Media Complex
            4. Conclusion
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          6. 6: “Honey-Drenched, Rags to Riches, Good versus Evil Stories”
            1. The Latin American Telenovela
            2. Telenovelas and Cultural Identity
            3. International Telenovela Flow
            4. Methodology
            5. Devaluing the Telenovela Genre
            6. The Telenovela as Cultural Proxy
            7. Discussion
            8. REFERENCES
          7. 7: Changes in the News Representation of Minorities Over the Course of 40 Years of Research
            1. Representation and Shaping Our Perception of the World
            2. Representation of Minorities in the News
            3. Theory and Methodology in Research of News Representation of Minorities
            4. Reasons for the Problematic Image of Minority Groups
            5. Changing Representations
            6. Conclusions
            7. REFERENCES
          8. 8: Is There Local Content on Television for Children Today?
            1. The Children's Television Landscape in a Global Context
            2. The Importance of Local Content
            3. Local Content on Local Thematic Television
            4. Locals Answering Back?
            5. Conclusion
            6. REFERENCES
        10. PART 2: ENTERTAINMENT
          1. 9: The Evolution of Hollywood Latinidad
            1. Invisibility and Stereotypes
            2. Racialization and “Latin Looks”
            3. Constructions of Latinidad and the Question of Authenticity
            4. Hybridity and Transnationalism
            5. Self-Representation and Participation in Mainstream Media
            6. Conclusion: Contemporary Trends and Research Questions
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
          2. 10: Queer Gazing and the Popular
            1. Mapping Queer Theory
            2. Queering Academia
            3. Putting the Queer into Media Studies
            4. Textual Deconstruction
            5. Queering Television
            6. Conclusion
            7. NOTE
            8. REFERENCES
          3. 11: Mediated Portrayals of Masculinities
            1. From Masculinity to Masculinities: Evolving Portrayals in US Media
            2. Differing Masculinities in the Media
            3. Hegemonic Masculinity in the Media
            4. Hypermasculinity in the Media
            5. Metrosexuals in the Media
            6. Masculinity and Race
            7. Masculinity and Class
            8. Masculinity and Sexual Orientation
            9. Masculinity and Gender
            10. Masculinities “Appropriate” for Specific Media
            11. Masculinities across Media
            12. Masculinities in Print
            13. Future Research
            14. NOTE
            15. REFERENCES
          4. 12: Shifting Contours of Indian Womanhood in Popular Hindi Cinema
            1. Reel Women?
            2. A New Nation's Cinema: From Strong Mothers to Docile Wives
            3. Binarized Femininity
            4. The Global Romance
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          5. 13: Portrayals of Female Scientists in the Mass Media
            1. Who's Working in the Lab? A Look at the Numbers
            2. Female Scientists in the Press: Extraordinary but Marginalized Scientist as well as a Good Wife and Mother
            3. Female Scientists on Television: Moving Away from Marginalization and Subordination to A Lab of Her Own
            4. Female Scientists on the Big Screen: Competent, Independent, and “Remarkably Beautiful”
            5. Female Scientists in Cyberspace: Gains in Professional Status Yet Challenges with Bias and Work/Family Balance
            6. Conclusions
            7. REFERENCES
          6. 14: “She's the Real Thing”
            1. Collective Memory-Making in Films on Vietnam
            2. Orientalist Logic
            3. Dramatizing a Vietnamese Woman's Story: Oliver Stone's Vision of Heaven and Earth
            4. The Quiet American: Phillip Noyce's Critique of War
            5. Three Seasons: Tony Bui's Imagining of Vietnam's Future
            6. Conclusions
            7. REFERENCES
          7. 15: Chinese Cinema at the Millennium
            1. Representing the Chinese “Nation”
            2. The Global Economy and the Rule of Law
            3. The Aftershock of History
            4. Conclusion
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          8. 16: Violent Content on US Television
            1. The Policy Perspective
            2. The Theoretical Perspective
            3. Defining Violence
            4. Historical Perspective of US Television Violence
            5. US Television Violence Before and After the Turn of the Century
            6. The Context of Violence
            7. Violence in US Children's Programs
            8. Conclusion
            9. NOTE
            10. REFERENCES
        11. PART 3: INTERACTION AND PERFORMANCE
          1. 17: Blogging Culture
            1. Blogging Content: Evolution
            2. The Private, the Public, and the Personal in Blogging Content
            3. Blogging and Representation
            4. Blogging and Race
            5. Blogging and Class
            6. Blogging and Gender
            7. Future Trends
            8. REFERENCES
          2. 18: Blogging the Third Wave?
            1. From Suffrage to Blogging: Generations of Feminist Media
            2. Feminist Media as Citizens' Media
            3. “Bare Breasts”: Blogging and Collective Action
            4. Consciousness-Raising 2.0? Blogging against Anorexia
            5. Micro-Narratives of Motherhood: Politicizing Childbirth and Breastfeeding
            6. Blogging Citizenship – Doing Feminism: Concluding Remarks
            7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
          3. 19: Videogame Content
            1. Analyzing Videogame Content
            2. Limitations of Past Approaches
            3. Case Study I: The Sims and Queerness
            4. More Recent Work
            5. Case Study II: Phoenix Wright
            6. Conclusion
            7. NOTE
            8. REFERENCES
          4. 20: Rethinking Violent Videogame Content
            1. Research on Videogames and Violence
            2. Incorporating Conceptual Issues into Videogame Content Research
            3. Conclusion
            4. REFERENCES
          5. 21: Transmedial Aesthetics
            1. Aesthetics of Convergence
            2. Narrative as Form and Content
            3. Affect, Movement, and Time
            4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          6. 22: Recent Trends in Research on Health Portrayals in the Media
            1. Scholarly Outlets for Content-Analytic Investigations
            2. Recent Trends in Content-Analytic Investigations
            3. The Big Picture
            4. REFERENCES
          7. 23: Canadian (Re)Presentation
            1. Fashioning a “Museum for the Twenty-First Century”: From Artifact Collection to Information Utility
            2. Museum Practice and Indigenous (Re)presentation
            3. Media Technologies and the First Peoples Hall
            4. Reception of the FPH
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          8. 24: Calypso and the Performance of Representational Politics
            1. Calypso Research: Histories, Intellectuals, and “The People”
            2. The Political Calypso: Intellectuals and “The People”
            3. Envisioning Futures: Performance and “Disreputable” Spaces
            4. Conclusion
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
        12. Index
      4. Volume IV
        1. Title Page
        2. Copyright
        3. Contents to Volume IV: Audience and Interpretation
        4. Full Contents
        5. Contributors to Volume IV
        6. Volume Editor's Acknowledgments
        7. General Editor's Acknowledgments
        8. Media Studies
          1. Media Studies Today
          2. Editors and Volumes
          3. NOTES
          4. REFERENCES
        9. Studying the Elusive Audience
          1. The Current Moment of Audience Studies
          2. Distinguishing Characteristics and Organization of the Volume
          3. REFERENCES
          4. FURTHER READING
        10. PART 1: EXPANDING THE HORIZONS OF AUDIENCE STUDIES
          1. 1: The Audience in the Graduate Curriculum
            1. Confronting the System
            2. Learning the Ropes
            3. Mentoring the Fledgling Researcher
            4. Space and Place
            5. Tackling Audience Research: Closing Thoughts
            6. REFERENCES
          2. 2: Fostering Surprise and Productive Discomfort in Audience Studies through Multi-Sited Ethnography
            1. Multi-Sited Ethnography: Possibilities, Problems, and Pleas
            2. My Project: Multi-Sited? Multilocal? Or Just Multiperspectival?
            3. The Diffusion, Modification, and Rejection of Borders' Model of Bookselling
            4. Competing Discourses, Ideologies and Conflicts Concerning Borders' Practices
            5. Conclusion
            6. REFERENCES
            7. FURTHER READING
          3. 3: Studying Audiences with Sense-Making Methodology
            1. Introduction
            2. Media Reception Situation
            3. Approaches to Researching Media Reception Situations
            4. Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology (SMM)
            5. Case Study: Gender as Structure
            6. Case Study: Media Interface as Structure
            7. Conclusions
            8. REFERENCES
          4. 4: The Abbreviated Field Experience in Audience Ethnography
            1. Fieldwork in Media Studies
            2. Observation and the Field
            3. Notes from a Visit to Monsanto
            4. Conclusions
            5. NOTE
            6. REFERENCES
        11. PART 2: PRACTICING REFLEXIVITY IN AND OUT OF THE FIELD
          1. 5: Studying Addiction
            1. Itineraries
            2. Walking Tours
            3. Looking Back and Looking Forward
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
          2. 6: The Reflexive Self
            1. Methods for Audience Research
            2. Three Modes of Reflexivity: Self, Media, and Research
            3. Producing Reflexivity
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
            6. FURTHER READING
          3. 7: Reflexivity in Data Analysis
            1. Introduction
            2. The Rise of Reflexivity in Media Audience and in Qualitative Methods Research
            3. How Research Is Made Meaningful: The Story of Kayla's Story
            4. Rigorous Research and the Work of Interpretation
            5. Conclusion: On the Role of Media Studies in Public Life
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
            8. FURTHER READING
          4. 8: Media Ethnography
            1. A Passionate Culture
            2. Generating Thick Data
            3. Thick Description and Textual Analysis
            4. Accounting for Force
            5. Introducing Isaac
            6. On Being a Parent: Thickness and Force
            7. Descriptions: Through Thick and Thin
            8. Writing Passionately
            9. Passionate Bodies, Passionate Minds
            10. Thickness, Force, Power
            11. REFERENCES
          5. 9: Nomadic Scholarship
            1. Not an Easy Task
            2. A View From the Ground
            3. Why Translocalism?
            4. We Are All Translocal, Including Audience Researchers
            5. On Developing Translocal Strategies for Audience Studies
            6. Concluding Remarks
            7. NOTE
            8. REFERENCES
        12. PART 3: FINDING AND ENGAGING GLOBAL AUDIENCES
          1. 10: Mythic Viewing
            1. Introduction
            2. Three Trysts with Audience Realities: Family, World, God
            3. Truth and Power in Audience Research
            4. Reality as Something Not So Nice
            5. Reality as Something Nice
            6. Reality as Religion
            7. Conclusion
            8. REFERENCES
          2. 11: “Unity in Diversity?”
            1. The Home Affairs of South African Television
            2. Imagining and Mediating the Nation
            3. Familiarity Breeds Contempt
            4. Familiarity and Desirability
            5. Familiarity and Ubiquity
            6. Conclusion: Multiple Proximities and Nation-Building
            7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
          3. 12: A Framework for Audience Study of Transnational Television
            1. Introduction
            2. East Asian Pop Culture
            3. TV Drama Audience
            4. Domesticating/Preserving the Foreign
            5. Fragmentary Audience
            6. Identification Ladder: From Human to Asian
            7. Distancing/Embracing Difference
            8. Layers of Audiences
            9. The Politics of a Transnational Audience
            10. Pan-East Asian Identity?
            11. For an Analytic Framework
            12. Conclusion
            13. NOTES
            14. REFERENCES
          4. 13: Language and Indian Film Audiences
            1. Linguistic Diversity in India
            2. Political Economy and Linguistic Diversity in the Indian Film Industry
            3. Research on Indian Film Audiences
            4. Implications for Studies of Film Audiences in India
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          5. 14: Watching Telenovelas in Brazil
            1. Every Night on Prime Time
            2. Watching TV in Macambira: A Case Study of Rural Viewers
            3. Conclusion
            4. REFERENCES
          6. 15: China's Media Transformation and Audience Research
            1. Importation of Foreign Media Products in the 1980s and Early 1990s
            2. Rapid Media Commercialization in China since 1992
            3. Global Influences on Chinese Media in the Post-WTO Environment
            4. Shifts in the Portrayal of a Chinese Audience: From Workers and Citizens to Consumers and Spectators
            5. Understanding the Implicit and Explicit Audience: Textual Analysis and Ethnography
            6. Audience Research and New Communication Technologies
            7. Agenda for Future Audience Research
            8. Conclusion
            9. NOTE
            10. REFERENCES
            11. FURTHER READING
          7. 16: Using Ethnography to Understand Everyday Media Practices in Australian Family Life
            1. Introduction
            2. Influences on Audience Ethnography in Australia
            3. The Ethnographic Audience Research Approach
            4. Conclusion
            5. REFERENCES
        13. PART 4: COMPREHENDING ONLINE AUDIENCES
          1. 17: Beyond the Active Audience
            1. The Audience as Producer
            2. The Audience Has an Audience (or The Audience is an Audience with An Audience)
            3. The Audience as Producer and the Audience That Seeks Its Own Audience
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
          2. 18: Counting, and Accounting for, Online Audiences
            1. Counting Audiences
            2. Measuring Online Audiences
            3. Casting the Role of Measurement
            4. Accounting for Audiences
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          3. 19: Always at Crossroads
            1. Studying Computer-Mediated Cultures: Point of Entry
            2. Cyberethnography
            3. Ethnographies at Online/Offline Intersections
            4. Conclusion
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
            8. FURTHER READING
          4. 20: Studying Online News Audiences
            1. Introduction
            2. Criticism of the Traditional Communication Model
            3. Online Newspapers and Interactivity
            4. The Engaged Audience: Interactive Features and Blogs
            5. Participatory and Citizen Journalism
            6. Challenges Ahead
            7. REFERENCES
        14. PART 5: EMPOWERING AUDIENCES AS CITIZENS
          1. 21: Health, Culture, and Power
            1. Definition of Terms
            2. Health, Culture, and Power
            3. The Biomedical Paradigm
            4. Women as an Audience of Health Media
            5. An Agenda for Research on Women as Audiences, of Health Media
            6. Conclusion
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 22: Participation Beyond Production
            1. Untangling Activist and Alternative Audiences
            2. Activists as Transmitters of Information
            3. The “Disturbing Gulf” between Activist Producers and Audiences
            4. Current Approaches to Activist Audiences
            5. Theorizing Activist Audiences as Participants in Ritual
            6. Contributions of Ritual to Media Research
            7. Social Limitations of New Activist Media
            8. Future Directions
            9. Conclusion
            10. REFERENCES
          3. 23: Audiences as Citizens
            1. Reception Research: Delimiting the Scope of the Analysis
            2. Stage 1: Hegemonic Citizenship
            3. Stage 2: Monitorial Citizenship
            4. Stage 3: Popular Citizenship
            5. Stage 4: Participatory Citizenship
            6. Stage 5: Ubiquitous Citizenship
            7. Audiences as Citizens: A Historical Typology
            8. Ubiquitous Citizenship: Challenges for Reception Research
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
            11. FURTHER READING
          4. 24: Citizenship, Communication, and Modes of Audience Engagement
            1. Political Street Plays
            2. Activist Documentaries
            3. Digital Engagement
            4. Witnessing as Engagement
            5. NOTE
            6. REFERENCES
        15. Index
      5. Volume V
        1. Title Page
        2. Copyright
        3. Contents of Volume V: Media Effects/Media Psychology
        4. Full Contents
        5. Contributors to Volume V
        6. Volume Editor's Acknowledgments
        7. General Editor's Acknowledgments
        8. Media Studies
          1. Media Studies Today
          2. Editors and Volumes
          3. NOTES
          4. REFERENCES
        9. Changes and Continuities in the Media Effects Paradigm
          1. Media Use Around the World
          2. Media Effects Scholarship: Stability and Change
          3. The Emergence of “Media Psychology”
          4. Conclusions and Future Directions
          5. REFERENCES
        10. PART 1: THEORIES AND PROCESSES/PROCESSING
          1. I: Theories of/about Effects
            1. 1: Mapping the Psychology of Agenda Setting
              1. Classic Conceptualizations and Emerging Trends
              2. An Overview
              3. Agenda-Setting Effects from Incidental Exposure
              4. Need for Orientation
              5. Elaborating the Concept of Relevance
              6. Knowledge Activation and Agenda Setting
              7. Consequences for Attitudes and Opinions
              8. Affective Impact of Visual Information
              9. Political and Civic Participation
              10. Conclusion
              11. REFERENCES
              12. FURTHER READING
            2. 2: Cultivation Theory
              1. Early Criticism
              2. Can Cultivation Survive the Active Viewer?
              3. The Cognitive Revolution
              4. First Order, Second Order, On-Line and Off-Line
              5. The Final Word on First- and Second-Order Processes?
              6. Challenges for Cultivation Theory in the Twenty-First Century: From a Psychological to a Sociological Revolution?
              7. The Final Challenge: Toward a Sociology of Cultivation?
              8. REFERENCES
              9. FURTHER READING
            3. 3: Framing and Priming Effects
              1. Priming and Framing – Modern Paradigms of Media Effects
              2. A Multi-Level Matrix for Media Framing and Priming Effects
              3. Framing and Priming at the Micro-Level
              4. Framing and Priming Effects at the Meso- and Macro-Levels
              5. Conclusions
              6. REFERENCES
            4. 4: Examining Media Effects
              1. Lessons Learned from Media
              2. The General Aggression Model
              3. GAM is Integrative
              4. Role of Individual Differences
              5. General Learning Model
              6. Overall Conclusions
              7. REFERENCES
              8. FURTHER READING
            5. 5: Perceptions of Media and Media Effects
              1. Audience Trust in Media
              2. Hostile Media Perceptions
              3. Perceived Media Influence
              4. Toward a Theory of Perceptions of Media
              5. REFERENCES
              6. FURTHER READING
          2. II: Internal Mechanisms: Enjoyment, Appeal, and Physiological Response
            1. 6: Uses and Gratifications
              1. Introduction
              2. Origins and Theoretical Assumptions
              3. Evolution of Research
              4. Communication Motives
              5. Activity
              6. Media and Content Exposure
              7. Background Characteristics
              8. Representative Uses and Gratifications Studies
              9. Conclusion
              10. REFERENCES
              11. FURTHER READING
            2. 7: Media Entertainment as a Result of Recreation and Psychological Growth
              1. Theorizing Media Entertainment
              2. The Enjoyment of Recreation and Psychological Growth
              3. Enjoyable Recreation During Media Exposure
              4. Enjoyable Psychological Growth During Media Exposure
              5. Conclusion
              6. NOTE
              7. REFERENCES
              8. FURTHER READING
            3. 8: Selective Exposure to Violent Media
              1. The Appeal of Media Violence
              2. Selective Exposure
              3. What is Media Violence?
              4. Excitation and Affect-Based Approaches
              5. Functional Approaches
              6. Personality Factors
              7. Social Factors Influencing Interest in Media Violence
              8. Understanding Interest in Media Violence: Some Tentative Conclusions
              9. REFERENCES
              10. FURTHER READING
            4. 9: Media Message Processing and the Embodied Mind
              1. Mind, Body, and Media
              2. The Theoretical Model
              3. The Operational Model
              4. Putting it All Together
              5. The Future
              6. REFERENCES
              7. FURTHER READING
            5. 10: Thoughtless Vigilantes
              1. Viewing Video Violence
              2. Research and Social Concerns upon the Introduction of Television
              3. The Five Principal US Commissions
              4. Correlational Research
              5. Special-Case Correlational Research
              6. Behavioral to Neurological – Connections
              7. Beginnings of Brainmapping
              8. Exploring the Prefrontal Cortex
              9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
              10. REFERENCES
              11. FURTHER READING
        11. PART 2: EVIDENCE OF EFFECTS
          1. III: On Views of Self, Others, and Events
            1. 11: Gender-Role Socialization in the Twenty-First Century
              1. Television and Gender
              2. Theoretical Orientations
              3. Gender-Role Images
              4. Effects of Media Images
              5. Conclusion
              6. REFERENCES
              7. FURTHER READING
            2. 12: Race and News Revisited
              1. Studying Race in the News
              2. The Framing of Race in Traditional Media
              3. How Stereotyped Media Content Affects the Individual
              4. Revisiting Race and News in a New Media Environment
              5. Shortcomings in Prior Research
              6. Conclusion
              7. REFERENCES
              8. FURTHER READING
            3. 13: The Influence of Media Exposure on the Formation, Activation, and Application of Racial/Ethnic Stereotypes
              1. Media and Stereotypes
              2. Portrayals of Race/Ethnicity in the Media
              3. Stereotype Construction
              4. Stereotype Activation and Application
              5. Factors that Moderate the Effect of the Media on Stereotyping
              6. Summary and Conclusions
              7. REFERENCES
              8. FURTHER READING
            4. 14: The Relationship between the Media, the Military, and the Public
              1. Media and War
              2. The Press/Military Relationship
              3. Embedded Reporters
              4. Visual Images of War
              5. Public Opinion and War
              6. Nontraditional Sources of Information
              7. Conclusion
              8. REFERENCES
              9. FURTHER READING
          2. IV: On Personal Health and Social Well-Being
            1. 15: Understanding the Role of Cognition and Media in Body Image Disturbance and Weight Bias in Children, Adolescents, and Adults
              1. Media and Body Size and Shape
              2. Relevant Background and Earlier Work in the Discipline
              3. Sports Media Exposure and Sports Participation
              4. Broader Contextualization of Relevant Factors: Body Image and Individual, Social, and Mediated Factors
              5. Theoretical Perspectives
              6. Other Body Image Outcomes: Anti-Fat Bias and Obesity
              7. The Role of the Media in the Development of Anti-Fat Bias
              8. Summary Discussion of Media Exposure and Anti-Fat Bias
              9. Media and Obesity
              10. Directions for Future Research
              11. REFERENCES
              12. FURTHER READING
            2. 16: Tracing the Course of Reality TV Effects Research
              1. Development of the Genre
              2. Defining Reality TV
              3. Why People Watch Reality TV
              4. The Effects of Reality TV Consumption
              5. Identification and Involvement with Reality TV Personalities
              6. Exploring the Benefits of Reality TV Viewing
              7. Reality TV and Viewers' Health
              8. Conclusion
              9. REFERENCES
              10. FURTHER READING
            3. 17: Media-Related Fear
              1. Fear and Anxiety in the Context of Emotion Theory
              2. Immediate and Lingering Fear Responses to Media
              3. Fear and Risk Related to Real-World Threats
              4. Media-Related Fear and Intergroup Relations
              5. Conclusions and Interpretations
              6. REFERENCES
              7. FURTHER READING
            4. 18: Callous/Malice
              1. Key Outcomes of Media Violence
              2. Physiological Outcomes
              3. Cognitive Outcomes
              4. Affective Outcomes
              5. Behavioral Outcomes
              6. Violent Content in Context
              7. Who is Most Susceptible?
              8. Conclusion
              9. REFERENCES
              10. FURTHER READING
            5. 19: Sex on Television
              1. Social Importance
              2. Sexual Socialization
              3. Theoretical Perspectives
              4. Empirical Research
              5. Variables of Interest
              6. Context of the Media Portrayal
              7. Positive Effects of Sexual Content in the Media?
              8. Conclusion
              9. Future Research
              10. REFERENCES
              11. FURTHER READING
          3. V: In the Political Arena
            1. 20: Political TV Advertising and Debates
              1. Importance of TV Spots and Debates in Contemporary Society
              2. The Nature of TV Spots and Debates
              3. Campaign Media Effects
              4. Minimal Effects Theory
              5. Conclusion
              6. REFERENCES
              7. FURTHER READING
            2. 21: News and Political Entertainment Effects on Democratic Citizenship
              1. Manifestations of Democratic Citizenship
              2. Effects of Traditional News Media
              3. Political Entertainment and the Evolving Media Landscape
              4. Conclusions
              5. REFERENCES
              6. FURTHER READING
            3. 22: Exploring Relations between Political Entertainment Media and Traditional Political Communication Information Outlets
              1. The Rise of Political Entertainment
              2. In the Message is the Mechanism: The Importance of Content
              3. The Who: The People Watching “The What”
              4. Effects Mechanisms: Areas of Promise
              5. Hybridity
              6. Causes and Characteristics of Hybrid Political Media Environment
              7. Conclusion: A Bright Future for Effects Research
              8. NOTE
              9. REFERENCES
              10. FURTHER READING
            4. 23: Digital Democracy
              1. Using the Internet
              2. The Internet, Sociability, and Politics
              3. News and Politics Online
              4. Blogs
              5. Online Public Sphere and Political Messaging
              6. Conclusion
              7. NOTES
              8. REFERENCES
              9. FURTHER READING
          4. VI: On/Of Persuasion
            1. 24: Advances in Public Communication Campaigns
              1. Studying Public Communication Campaigns
              2. Campaign Design and Management
              3. Summative Evaluation of Campaign Effects
              4. Message Types
              5. Mediated Communication Channels: Mass and Digital
              6. Quantitative Dissemination Factors
              7. Example Campaign Focus: Anti-Drug Campaigns
              8. Example Campaign Focus: Antismoking Campaigns
              9. Example Campaign Focus: Risky Drinking Campaigns
              10. Conclusion
              11. REFERENCES
              12. FURTHER READING
            2. 25: Effects of Social Marketing
              1. Communication and Information Campaigns
              2. Fear Appeals
              3. Personalization
              4. Social Marketing
              5. Potential
              6. Limitations
              7. Review of Previous Studies
              8. Conclusions
              9. REFERENCES
              10. FURTHER READING
            3. 26: Using Message Framing in Health-Related Persuasion
              1. Defining Message Framing
              2. The Origins of Message Framing
              3. Research on Message Framing: An Overview
              4. Moderators of Message Framing Effects
              5. Conclusions
              6. REFERENCES
              7. FURTHER READING
            4. 27: The Intended and Unintended Effects of Advertising on Children
              1. Children's Processing of Advertising
              2. Advertising Processing and Advertising Effects
              3. The Role of Development
              4. The Role of Parents and Caretakers
              5. Conclusions
              6. REFERENCES
        12. PART 3: THE YOUNG AUDIENCE
          1. VII: Media Use and Effects on Learning and Development
            1. 28: Media Use, Scholastic Achievement, and Attention Span
              1. Media and Scholastic Achievement: Key Questions
              2. Preeminence of Television
              3. Television and Achievement
              4. Vanishing Relationship
              5. Curvilinearity
              6. Attention
              7. Language and Vocabulary
              8. Creativity and Imaginative Thinking
              9. In Search of Explanation
              10. Displacement
              11. Interference
              12. Socialization
              13. Process
              14. Looking Ahead
              15. NOTE
              16. REFERENCES
            2. 29: The Educational Impact of Television
              1. Television as an Educational Tool
              2. The Task of Watching Television
              3. Does Television Have an Educational Impact on Infants?
              4. Preschoolers and Television
              5. Preschoolers' TV Viewing: A Task Analysis
              6. Educational Programming
              7. Beyond the Preschool Years
              8. How is Educational Television Successful?
              9. Final Comment
              10. REFERENCES
              11. FURTHER READING
            3. 30: Prosocial TV Content
              1. Television as a Prosocial Force
              2. Weak Effects of Unaided Viewing at Home
              3. Why Might Young Viewers Need Help Interpreting Prosocial Content?
              4. How are Prosocial Lessons Taught in Television Content?
              5. The Risks in Modeling Negative Attitudes and Behaviors
              6. Strategies to Try to Increase Positive Effects
              7. Adding Explanatory Inserts to Prosocial Content
              8. Conclusions
              9. REFERENCES
              10. FURTHER READING
            4. 31: The Effects of Internet Communication on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development
              1. Adolescents and the Internet
              2. Internet Communication and Psychosocial Development in Adolescence
              3. Identity, Intimacy, and Five Characteristics of Internet Communication
              4. Opportunities and Risks of Internet Communication: Empirical Evidence
              5. Conclusions, Shortcomings, and Future Research
              6. NOTE
              7. REFERENCES
              8. FURTHER READING
          2. VIII: Mediating and Mitigating Effects
            1. 32: Boom or Boomerang
              1. Media Literacy Defined
              2. What is a Media Literacy Intervention?
              3. Applications and Interventions
              4. Media Literacy Efficacy: Key Issues
              5. Conclusion
              6. REFERENCES
              7. FURTHER READING
            2. 33: The Role of Parental Mediation in the Development of Media Literacy and the Prevention of Substance Use
              1. Mediation in Homes and Schools
              2. Parental Mediation and its Effects on Children and Adolescents
              3. Parental Mediation and Substance Use
              4. Relationships between Parental Communication and Media Literacy
              5. Media Literacy and Substance Use
              6. Integrating Parental Communication, Media Literacy, and Substance Use
              7. Conclusion
              8. REFERENCES
              9. FURTHER READING
            3. 34: The Impact of Media Policy on Children's Media Exposure
              1. Foundations of Media Policy
              2. Federal Children's Media Policies
              3. Federal Funding Programs
              4. Self-Regulation
              5. Conclusion
              6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
              7. REFERENCES
              8. FURTHER READING
        13. Index
      6. Volume VI
        1. Title Page
        2. Copyright
        3. Contents to Volume VI: Media Studies Futures
        4. Full Contents
        5. Contributors to Volume VI
        6. General Editor's Acknowledgments
        7. Media Studies
          1. Media Studies Today
          2. Editors and Volumes
          3. NOTES
          4. REFERENCES
        8. Introduction
          1. Media Studies Futures, Past and Present
          2. Defining the Media in Media Studies
          3. Part 1: The Future of Media Studies: Theory, Method, Pedagogy
          4. Part 2: Social and Mobile Media Futures
          5. Part 3: Media Industry and Infrastructure Futures
          6. Part 4: Journalism and Media Policy Futures
          7. Part 5: Interactivity, Affect, and the Future of Media Subjectivities
          8. Part 6: Whose Future? Children, Youth Cultures, and Digital Media
          9. Part 7: What Future? Or, the Unsustainable Present
          10. NOTES
          11. REFERENCES
        9. PART 1: THE FUTURE OF MEDIA STUDIES: THEORY, METHODS, PEDAGOGY
          1. 1: Media Studies
            1. When Theory Loses its Sting
            2. Exodus from Media Studies
            3. A Blurry Heritage
            4. Keeping Up with the Googles
            5. Media Studies in the Netherlands
            6. The Quantitative Turn
            7. Outlook Toward a New Program
            8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
          2. 2: In Praise of Concept Production
            1. Database Dating and the Invention of Schools
            2. The Media Question and Organized Networks
            3. Concepts Beyond the Classroom
            4. Organizing Concept Production
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          3. 3: Betting on YouTube Futures (for New Media Writing and Publishing)
            1. Introduction
            2. Introduction to Blogs 1 and 2 on Teaching the Class
            3. BLOG 1: Learning from YouTube, 09-07-2007
            4. BLOG 2: Learning from Learning from YouTube mid-way, 10-29-07
            5. Conclusions for Blogs 1 and 2
            6. Introduction to Blogs 3 and 4 on Organizing Course Output and Conclusions
            7. BLOG 3: YouTube Tour #1: Education, 02-06-08
            8. BLOG 4: On Video Writing, 11-04-08
            9. Introduction to Blogs 5–7: On Publishing in the Digital Humanities
            10. BLOG 5: Digital Humanities, 7-17-09
            11. BLOG 6: On Publishing My YouTube “Book” Online, 09-24-09
            12. BLOG 7: Contractual Mayhem: On the Absurdities of Moving from Paper to Digital in Academic Publishing, 06-11-10
            13. Conclusions Regarding the Shape of What is Missing
            14. NOTES
            15. REFERENCES
          4. 4: Media Visualization
            1. Introduction: How to Work with Massive Media Data Sets
            2. Media Visualization
            3. Dimensions of Media Visualization
            4. Media Visualization Techniques
            5. Conclusion
            6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
          5. 5: The Future of Game Studies
            1. Introduction
            2. A Prehistory of Game Studies
            3. Videogames are Special, and Not Special
            4. Methods and their Meanings
            5. Questioning Origin Theories
            6. One Possible Future for Game Studies
            7. REFERENCES
          6. 6: The Study of the Internet in Latin America
            1. Alejandro Piscitelli: From Cyberculture to Facebook
            2. The Information Society and the Digital Divide
            3. Complicating Internet Access Issues in Latin America
            4. Youth Cybercultures, Citizenship, and Urban Environments
            5. Cyber-Journalism and Blogging
            6. Affect and Collective Intelligence
            7. Analog Researchers, Retrained for the Digital World
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
        10. PART 2: SOCIAL AND MOBILE MEDIA FUTURES
          1. 7: The Prehistoric Turn?
            1. Introduction
            2. Understanding Convergence: From the Audience Commodity to Immaterial Labor
            3. The “Sensuous” Body of Immaterial Labor 2.0
            4. The Prehistoric Turn
            5. New Rhythms of (Non)Locality
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 8: The Waning Distinction Between Private and Public
            1. The Waning Distinction Between Private and Public: Net Locality and the Restructuring of Space
            2. When Photography Becomes Cartography
            3. Making Location Data Public
            4. Rethinking Privacy and Surveillance
            5. Blurring the Line Between Private and Public Spaces
            6. Privacy Through Exclusion
            7. Conclusion
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
          3. 9: How to Have Social Media in an Invisible Pandemic
            1. Time, Visibility, and the Social Media Pandemic
            2. H1N1: Social Mediation in Anticipatory Time
            3. Social Media and Reproducibility
            4. H1N1's Shadow Archive: (Flu) Pandemics Past
            5. HCV: An Invisible Pandemic in Slow Time
            6. The Invisible Virus: Clones, Swarms, and Quasi-Species
            7. HCV's Slow Course: The Imperceptible Bodily Progression of the Disease
            8. The Invisible Pandemic: HCV as Unmediated Virus
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
          4. 10: Mobile Handsets from the Bottom Up
            1. Introduction
            2. Technology Appropriation
            3. Diffusion and Manufacture of Mobile Phones
            4. Methods
            5. Alternative Phones and Grassroots Innovation
            6. A Taxonomy of Alternative Phones
            7. Concluding Remarks
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
        11. PART 3: MEDIA INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE FUTURES
          1. 11: The End of James Cameron's Quiet Years
            1. Avatar as Game Changer
            2. Battle Across Formats
            3. Access and Apparatus
            4. Technological Tentpoles
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 12: Infrastructural Changeover
            1. No Viewer Left Behind
            2. Out of Range
            3. From TV Snow to White Space
            4. Conclusion
            5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          3. 13: The 800-Pound Gorillas in the Room
            1. The Uncomfortable Proximity of Convergence
            2. “The Future of Broadcast Television is Mobile”
            3. Emergent Technologies, Residual Protocols
            4. “Real TV, Now on Your Phone”
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          4. 14: Preemption, Premediation, Prediction
            1. Accreditation in the Future-Information Economy: Discrediting the Political
            2. Betting on Terror
            3. Conclusion
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
        12. PART 4: JOURNALISM AND MEDIA POLICY FUTURES
          1. 15: The Decline of Modern Journalism in the Neo-Partisan Era
            1. The Roots of the Objective Ideal and Journalism's Modern Period
            2. News Values, Individualism, and Conflict: The “Story” of Modern News
            3. The Transformation of Reporting Rites in the New Partisan Era
            4. Differences Between Print and Television News
            5. Visual Language, Critical Limits, and Fake News
            6. 60 Minutes and the Reporter as Star
            7. Contemporary Journalism in the Corporate Era
            8. The Waning of the Corporate Era
            9. The Decline of Public Journalism and the Rise of Citizen Reporters
            10. New News Narratives and Implications for Journalism Education
            11. REFERENCES
          2. 16: Reconstructing Accountability
            1. On the Political Economy of Accountability Journalism
            2. On Professionalism and Journalism's Normative Foundation
            3. On Journalism Studies in the Age of Reorientation
            4. REFERENCES
          3. 17: Mending the Gaps
            1. Historicizing the Disconnect and Revising the Revisions
            2. A Call for Critical Media Policy Studies
            3. The Critical Political Economy Approach to Policy Studies
            4. Contextualizing the Big Picture and Returning to the Normative
            5. What Media Scholars Can Do
            6. Historicizing Media Policy Debates
            7. Conclusion
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
        13. PART 5: INTERACTIVITY, AFFECT, AND THE FUTURE OF MEDIA SUBJECTIVITIES
          1. 18: From Audiences to Media Subjectivities
            1. Problematizing the Audience
            2. Collective Subjects: Composition and Organization
            3. Associated Terms
            4. Interactivity as/in the Interregnum
            5. Conclusion: Monsters of Reason
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 19: Future Directions for Political Communication Scholarship
            1. Emotion and Communication Studies
            2. Liberal Democratic Theory and the Distrust of Emotion
            3. Problematizing Liberal Democracy and the Public Sphere
            4. The Impact of Emotions on Political Life
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTE
            7. REFERENCES
          3. 20: The Future of New Media
            1. New Media After the Singularity
            2. The Future of Cartesian Dualism
            3. The Future of “Human Biology”
            4. Transcending Us, or, Ending the Future
            5. The Futur of New Media
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          4. 21: “It's a Nigger in Here! Kill the Nigger!”
            1. The Politics of Videogame Pleasure: Who Plays, Who Pays?
            2. Overemphasis on the Hardcore Gamer
            3. Videogames are Both Textual and Communicative Artifacts
            4. Conclusion
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
          5. 22: From “The Ultimate Display” to “The Ultimate Skinner Box”
            1. Introduction: Cybertherapeutic Reason
            2. A Hammer Finds its Nail: A Brief History of VR Therapy
            3. The Ultimate Skinner Box?
            4. VR for PTSD: A Comparative Approach
            5. Comparing VR Therapies
            6. Conclusion: The Future of Therapy?
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
        14. PART 6: WHOSE FUTURE? CHILDREN, YOUTH CULTURES, AND DIGITAL MEDIA
          1. 23: Mapping ICT Adoption among Latin American Youth
            1. Introduction
            2. Quantitative Dimensions of ICT Access and Use in the Region
            3. The Indicators in Perspective: Regional Strategies and National Plans
            4. Qualitative Dimensions of ICT Access and Appropriation in the Region
            5. Final Considerations
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 24: South Asian Digital Diasporas
            1. Introduction
            2. Part I: Theorizing South Asian Diaspora
            3. Part II: Desi Youth Hanging Out in Digital Diaspora
            4. NOTES
            5. REFERENCES
          3. 25: Fear and Hope
            1. Research on Children and Young People's Mobile Phone Use
            2. Childhoods Past and Present
            3. Moral Panics and Risks
            4. Examples from Japan: Facing the Future of Communication
            5. Examples from Australia: Threats and Opportunities
            6. Comparing Japan and Australia: Commonalities and Contexts
            7. Back to the Futures: Conclusions and Questions
            8. NOTES
            9. REFERENCES
        15. PART 7: WHAT FUTURE? OR, THE UNSUSTAINABLE PRESENT
          1. 26: Artificial Life on a Dead Planet
            1. Introduction
            2. From Abstract Labor to Abstract Life
            3. A Dead Planet
            4. Artificial Life
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 27: The Dead-End of Consumerism
            1. Environmental Contradictions
            2. Economic Contradictions: The Diminishing Returns of Consumer Capitalism
            3. Cultural Contradictions: Consumer Capitalism vs. the Quality of Life
            4. Living the Contradictions: Media, Culture, and Consumer Capitalism
            5. Obsessed with Obsolescence
            6. Selling Consumerism
            7. Disposable News and Democracy: Rethinking the Way We Report the World
            8. Beyond Consumerism: Media Studies Reborn
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
          3. 28: Media Armageddons and the Death of Liberal Biopolitics
            1. Introduction
            2. Disaster Films
            3. Liberalism, the Labor Theory of Value, and the Wealth of Nations
            4. Liberal Dreams, Liberal Nightmares
            5. Conclusion
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          4. 29: Greening Cultural Labor
            1. Introduction
            2. 2010: Blessed are the Accountants . . .
            3. Sometime in the Near Future
            4. Conclusion
            5. NOTES
            6. REFERENCES
        16. Index
      7. Volume VII
        1. Title Page
        2. Copyright
        3. Contents to Volume VII: Research Methods in Media Studies
        4. Full Contents
        5. Contributors to Volume VII
        6. General Editor's Acknowledgments
        7. Media Studies
          1. Media Studies Today
          2. Editors and Volumes
          3. NOTES
          4. REFERENCES
        8. Convergence, Globalization, Technological Development, and Interdisciplinarity in a Fast-Evolving World
          1. Situating Research Methods in Media Studies
          2. Running Themes and Volume Organization
          3. Part 1: Setting Up the Stage
          4. Part 2: Working with People
          5. Part 3: Working with Texts
          6. Part 4: Virtual Challenges, Interdisciplinary Research, and Mixed Method Research
          7. NOTES
          8. REFERENCES
        9. PART 1: SETTING UP THE STAGE
          1. 1: Media Research Paradigms
            1. Approaches, Methodologies, Paradigms
            2. Ambiguity of “Media and Communication Research”
            3. Mapping Contemporary Paradigms: Logics of Coherence
            4. Tensions: The Dominant Paradigm and Its Challengers
            5. Challenges and Controversies in Media Research
            6. For a Reconstituted Matrix of Research
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
          2. 2: The Challenge of Media Research Ethics
            1. Who Cares About Research Ethics?
            2. Three Types of Ethical Questions
            3. A Brief History of Ethics Review Boards
            4. Common Critiques of Ethics Review Boards
            5. Media Research: A History of Competing Motives
            6. Basic Protocols in Media Research
            7. The Challenge of Online Environments
            8. Research Ethics 2.0? Review Boards Confront the Challenge of Digital Media
            9. The Challenge of Participatory and Activist Research
            10. Accepting the Challenge of Media Research Ethics
            11. REFERENCES
        10. PART 2: WORKING WITH PEOPLE
          1. 3: Doing Survey Research in Media Studies
            1. History and Uses of Survey Methodology in Media Studies
            2. When to Select Survey Methodology
            3. Procedure for Conducting a Survey
            4. Selecting a Study Design
            5. Assessing the Mode of Delivering the Questionnaire
            6. Selecting a Sample
            7. Designing a Questionnaire
            8. Challenges in Survey Methodology
            9. Conducting Ethically Sound Survey Research
            10. REFERENCES
          2. 4: Beyond the Qualitative/Quantitative “Divide”
            1. Introduction
            2. What Is Q Methodology? A Brief History and Overview
            3. How Does Q Methodology Work?
            4. Utilizing Q Methodology in Media Research
            5. Receptions of Avatar: A Case Study in Using Q Methodology for Media Research
            6. What is Q Methodology's Potential Contribution to Answering Key Questions in Media Studies?
            7. Conclusion
            8. NOTE
            9. REFERENCES
          3. 5: The Interview
            1. Interviewing: A Brief History and Philosophy
            2. Kinds of Interviews
            3. Institutional Review Board Approval
            4. Drawing a Sample
            5. Developing Questions
            6. Collecting the Data
            7. Analyzing and Writing the Data
            8. Conclusion
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
          4. 6: Oral History Interviews
            1. Recovering and Interpreting the Past
            2. History of Oral History
            3. Memory
            4. Human Subjects Review
            5. Pre-Interview Research
            6. Interview as Data Collection
            7. Choosing Your Interviews
            8. Recording Technology
            9. Questions
            10. Legal Release Form
            11. Transcriptions/Electronic Media
            12. Transcript Approval
            13. Oral History Interview Analysis and Interpretation
            14. Presentation and Classroom Use
            15. Oral History Repository
            16. Summary and Conclusion
            17. REFERENCES
          5. 7: Memories of Films and Cinema-Going in Monterrey, Mexico
            1. Qualitative Interviews and the Exploration of Cinema-Goers' Memories
            2. The Setting
            3. Memories of Cinema-Going: The Relevance of Focused Interviews in the Exploration of Film Audiences' Experiences
            4. Selection of Movie Houses and Films by Audiences, 1930s–1960s
            5. Social Class Differences
            6. Memories of National and Foreign Films
            7. Cinema-Going, Family, and Social Interaction
            8. Memories of Plots and Movies
            9. Discussion
            10. NOTES
            11. REFERENCES
          6. 8: Conducting Media Ethnographies in Africa
            1. Ethnography
            2. Media Anthropology
            3. Case Study: Ethnography of a Local Radio Station
            4. The Fieldwork
            5. Authority and Ownership
            6. Conflict
            7. Discussion
            8. NOTE
            9. REFERENCES
          7. 9: Autoethnography in Media Studies
            1. Autoethnography
            2. The Problems of Autoethnography
            3. The Benefits of Autoethnography
            4. Connecting the Individual to the Cultural: Digitalization of TV in Finland
            5. Small Is Beautiful
            6. REFERENCES
          8. 10: The Basics of Experimental Research in Media Studies
            1. Logic of the Controlled Experiment
            2. Establishing Causality
            3. Research Questions That Can Be Addressed by Controlled Experiments
            4. Designing an Experiment
            5. True Experimental Designs
            6. Factorial Studies
            7. Confounds
            8. Creating Treatment and Message Variance
            9. Operationalizing Independent Variables
            10. Operationalizing Dependent Variables
            11. Between or Within Subjects?
            12. Sample Sizes
            13. Sample Composition
            14. Manipulation Checks
            15. Summary
            16. REFERENCES
          9. 11: Between-Subjects Experimental Design and Analysis
            1. Case Study: An Examination of Anti-Fat Bias in Grade School Children
            2. Design Problems Specific to the Case Study
            3. How Between-Subjects Designs Can Be Used in Media Studies Research
            4. REFERENCES
        11. PART 3: WORKING WITH TEXTS
          1. 12: Using a Mixed Approach to Content Analysis
            1. Apologetic Rhetoric
            2. Research Questions
            3. Planning a Mixed Approach to Content Analysis
            4. Analysis
            5. Conclusion: Advantages and Disadvantages of a Mixed Approach
            6. NOTES
            7. REFERENCES
          2. 13: Lessons Learned from a Research Saga
            1. Origins: Developing Research Questions
            2. Design
            3. Sampling and Material Collection
            4. Measures
            5. Coder Selection and Training
            6. Intercoder Reliability
            7. Data Entry and Analysis
            8. Writing, Authorship, and Presentation
            9. Unexpected Afterlife
            10. Lessons Learned
            11. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            12. NOTE
            13. REFERENCES
          3. 14: Text-Based Approaches to Qualitative Research
            1. Text-Based Approaches to Qualitative Research
            2. Types of Text-Based Approaches
            3. Doing Text-Based Qualitative Research
            4. Ethical Considerations
            5. REFERENCES
          4. 15: Analyzing Text
            1. Defining Textual Analysis
            2. Methodological Assumptions
            3. Topic Selection
            4. Exemplar: Representing the Other in Food Reviews
            5. Establishing a Theoretical Context
            6. Further Interpretations
            7. NOTE
            8. REFERENCES
          5. 16: Cultural History and Media Studies
            1. Turn 1: Symbolic Anthropology and Folklore Studies
            2. Turn 2: The Culture Industry, Hegemony, and Cultural Studies
            3. Turn 3: Discourse and Identity
            4. Turn 4: Society, Structure, and Practice
            5. Media Culture and Materiality: Culture Industries, Senses, and Books
            6. REFERENCES
          6. 17: Historical Approaches to Media Studies
            1. Introduction
            2. Methodologies, Topics, and Research Questions
            3. Sources
            4. Using the Sources
            5. Case Studies
            6. NOTE
            7. REFERENCES
          7. 18: Film Analysis
            1. Introducing Film Analysis
            2. Film Analysis and Criticism
            3. Film Analysis and Systems
            4. Film Analysis, Statistics, and Objectivity
            5. Film Analysis, Description, and Evocation
            6. Conclusion
            7. REFERENCES
          8. 19: Eye Tracking in Media Studies
            1. Eye Tracking: The Method
            2. Structural Components of Human Eye Movements: Fixations, Saccades, Micro-Movements
            3. Exogenous and Endogenous Control of Visual Perception
            4. What Fixations and Saccades Tell Us
            5. Setting Up an Eye-Tracking Study: A Case Study on Shock-Inducing Advertisements
            6. Methodological Limitations and Challenges
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
          9. 20: Exploring Visual Aspects of Audience Membership
            1. Review of Relevant Literature: Television Reception Studies
            2. Photovoice
            3. Methodology
            4. The Show True Blood
            5. Combining Photovoice With the Reception Interview
            6. Results: Using Photographs to Talk About Television
            7. Using Photovoice to Express Manifest and Latent Themes
            8. Providing an Aesthetic Foundation
            9. Discussion and Conclusion
            10. NOTE
            11. REFERENCES
            12. Appendix A: Procedures
            13. Appendix B: Interview Protocol
        12. PART 4: VIRTUAL CHALLENGES, INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH, AND MIXED METHOD RESEARCH
          1. 21: The Methodology of Online News Analysis
            1. The Object of Research
            2. The Data
            3. The Problems
            4. Results and Findings
            5. Conclusions
            6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            7. NOTES
            8. REFERENCES
          2. 22: Digital Ethnography and Media Practices
            1. Introduction
            2. Digital Ethnography
            3. Carrying Out Digital Fieldwork
            4. Some Final Remarks
            5. REFERENCES
          3. 23: Clicks and Bricks
            1. Review of Research Approaches to Traditional and New Media Studies
            2. Experimenting With Mixed Research Methods to Study Complex Virtual Interactions
            3. Study 1: A Tale of Two Websites
            4. Study 2: Redefining the Problem Space, Extending the Research Focus
            5. Study 3: A Conceptual Framework for Virtual Studies
            6. Measuring Perceptual Shifts in Physical and Virtual Play
            7. The Importance of Isolating for Gender
            8. Complex Virtual Interactions Call for Complex Methodological Approaches
            9. NOTES
            10. REFERENCES
          4. 24: Exploring the Effects of TV and Movie Music on Childhood
            1. Method
            2. General Approach of the Study
            3. The Sound Medium
            4. The Model
            5. Instruments
            6. Rationale: Children and the Music of the Media
            7. Analysis of TVE Programs for Children
            8. Analysis of Cinema for Children: Happy Feet
            9. Conclusions and Discussion
            10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
            11. REFERENCES
          5. 25: Latino Diasporas and the Media
            1. The Transnational Perspective: The Interstices of Thinking “Glocally”
            2. Representations of Otherness in News Media Discourse: Latin Americans in Spain
            3. Compassionate View of Ecuadorians
            4. An Attitude of Fear Toward Colombians
            5. Brotherly Attitude Toward Argentineans
            6. Immigrants' Discourses on Their Media Images
            7. Ecuadorians: “We Are Just the Poor and We Get Angry”
            8. Colombians: “They See Us as ‘Bad’ People and They Are Afraid of Us”
            9. Argentineans: “If We Do Not Talk, They Do Not Realize We Are Argentineans”
            10. Journalists' Discourses on the “Problem” of Latin American Immigration in Spain
            11. Discourses on Self-Representation: Ethnic Media in Global Cities
            12. Cultural and Media Consumption in Diasporic Contexts
            13. Latino Diasporas and the Media: Notes for Further Explorations
            14. REFERENCES
        13. Index