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The Insider's Guide to Grantmaking: How Foundations Find, Fund, and Manage Effective Programs

Book Description

Unlike many formal professions, foundation grantmaking is a calling with no training programs and little definitive literature on the latest and best practices. Written for program officers and of considerable value to grantseekers, this volume is the first and only practical guide to making foundation grants and developing essential skills for effective and ethical grantmaking. Author Joel J. Orosz provides:

  • The history, structure, and function of foundations in society.

  • The complex role that program officers play in their day-to-day activities.

  • Real-world advice on a myriad of tasks--from meeting with applicants and reviewing their proposals to assisting the funded project and managing foundation initiatives.

  • A useful overview for those new to the field, helps more experienced program officers to think more deeply about their work, and shares rich insights for the thousands of nonprofit leaders who pursue foundation grants.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Publication Sponsored by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
    1. An Inside View of Professional Practice
    2. Overview of the Contents
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. The Author
  10. Prologue: Foundations—Their History, Structure, and Societal Role
    1. Foundation History in the United States
    2. The Prototypical Private Foundations: Carnegie and Rockefeller
    3. The Flowering of Foundations
    4. The Tax Reform Act of 1969
    5. Foundations: Their Types and Structure
    6. Foundations: Their Societal Role
    7. Foundations: The Role of the Program Officer
  11. Chapter One: Making Sense of the Grantmaking Universe
    1. Choosing a Grantmaking Style
    2. Choosing a Mode of Operation
    3. Choosing a Public Profile
    4. Setting Grantmaking Priorities
    5. The Five Steps in Setting Priorities
    6. Conclusion
  12. Chapter Two: Grantmaking: The Human Factor
    1. The Temptations of Philanthropy
    2. A Grantseeker's Bill of Rights
    3. What Qualities Should Grantmakers Possess?
    4. Conclusion
  13. Chapter Three: Building Relationships with Applicants
    1. Grantmaking: A Relational Enterprise
    2. Communicating Requirements with Clarity
    3. Telephone Calls and Meetings with Applicants
    4. Project File Documentation
    5. Relations with Colleagues
    6. Conclusion
  14. Chapter Four: Reviewing Proposals
    1. Typology of Proposals
    2. Relationship of the Idea to the Proposal
    3. Contract Grantwriters
    4. Sentry or Steward?
    5. Twelve Characteristics of a Good Proposal
    6. Continuation and Evaluation
    7. The Budget
    8. Assessing Organizational Capacity
    9. Conclusion
  15. Chapter Five: Declining Proposals
    1. The Four Reasons to Decline a Proposal
    2. Rhetoric Versus Reality
    3. Traps for the Unwary Program Officer
    4. Character and Clarity in Declines
    5. Grantseeker Complaints, Grantmaker Responses
    6. The Problem of the Persistent Proposer
    7. Conclusion
  16. Chapter Six: Responding to Proposals
    1. Keeping Applicants' Expectations in Check
    2. Initial Review of Proposals
    3. The Questions and Concerns Letter
    4. The Q&C Format
    5. Crafting the Questions and Concerns
    6. Coaching the Applicant
    7. Sample Q&Cs: Serious and Humorous
    8. Grantseeker Responses to Q&Cs
    9. Conclusion
  17. Chapter Seven: Site Visits
    1. To Visit or Not to Visit, That Is the Question
    2. The Inevitability of Rising Expectations
    3. Timing of the Site Visit
    4. Setting the Agenda
    5. Public and Private Conversations
    6. Signs of Trouble
    7. Field Notes and Follow-Up
    8. Declining Requests After Site Visits
    9. Using Consultants for Site Visits
    10. Conclusion
  18. Chapter Eight: Writing the Funding Document
    1. Writing the Funding Document
    2. Secrets of Successful Funding Documents
    3. Do's and Don'ts
    4. Do's
    5. Don'ts
    6. Conclusion
  19. Chapter Nine: Presenting the Funding Document
    1. Strategies for Presentations
    2. Presentation Home Runs and Third Rails
    3. Fielding Questions
    4. After the Q&A Session
    5. Relationships Between You and the Board Members
    6. Conclusion
  20. Chapter Ten: Managing the Project
    1. Project Management: The Possible and the Practical
    2. Management Pitfalls
    3. Techniques of Grants Management
    4. Types of Technical Assistance
    5. Use and Misuse of Consultants
    6. Withholding Payments and Terminating Grants
    7. Exit Strategy
    8. Conclusion
  21. Chapter Eleven: Closing the Project
    1. To Renew or Not to Renew?
    2. Making Sense of Grantee Reports
    3. Closing Summary Statement
    4. Making Use of Lessons Learned
    5. Conclusion
  22. Chapter Twelve: Leveraging Impact
    1. Increasing Impact Before the Project Is Funded
    2. Increasing Impact While the Project Is Active
    3. Increasing Impact After the Project Is Closed
    4. Conclusion
  23. Chapter Thirteen: Influencing Policy
    1. Foundation Phobias Regarding Public Policy
    2. What Foundations Cannot Do
    3. What Foundations Can Do
    4. What Nonprofits Cannot Do
    5. What Nonprofits Can Do
    6. Types of Policy Impacts
    7. Overt Ideology Versus Ideological Neutrality
    8. Creating a Policy Framework
    9. Developing a Public Policy Message
    10. The Relational Nature of Policy Work
    11. Using Policy to Leverage Impact
    12. Public Policy and Public Will
    13. Conclusion
  24. Chapter Fourteen: Initiative-Based Grantmaking
    1. Initiatives: Pros and Cons
    2. Starting the Initiative
    3. The Integrated Action Plan
    4. The Integrated Action Plan: One Model
    5. The Logic Model
    6. Request for Proposals
    7. Strategic Communications
    8. Special Management Challenges of Initiatives
    9. Conclusion
  25. Chapter Fifteen: The Ethics of Grantmaking
    1. Avoiding the Seven Deadly Sins of Philanthropy
    2. Conclusion
  26. Epilogue: The Future of Formal Philanthropy
    1. Big Bull Market Boosts Foundations
    2. Diversity and Foundations
    3. Intergenerational Transfer of Wealth
    4. Threats on the Horizon
    5. Philanthropy as Social Venture Capital
    6. The Future of Philanthropy
    7. Conclusion
  27. References
  28. Bibliography
  29. Index