**Transforming Periodic Graphs**

Move, stretch, squish, and flip graphs

*Note: Problems 5.13–5.17 refer to the graph of periodic function f(x) below.*

**5.13** Graph *f*(*x*) – 1.

It is helpful to identify key points on a graph before you attempt to transform it. For example, (–6,–2), (–4,2), (–2,–2), (0,2), (2,–2), (4,2), and (6,–2) may be considered key points on the graph of *f*(*x*) because they are the points at which *f*(*x*) changes direction.

When you transform a graph, think about the way in which the transformation affects the individual points you’ve identified. For example, to graph *f*(*x*) – 1, you subtract 1 from each of the *f*(*x*), or *y*, coordinates ...

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