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The History of Mining: The events, technology and people involved in the industry that forged the modern world by Michael Coulson

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18. European Mining

The modern age for Europe has been a time of war, political crisis and the attempted rise of the European superstate but it has also been a time of economic growth and, despite everything, a time of rising prosperity for its often beleaguered citizens. As the 20th century wore on the industrial bias of the continent began to change as technological advances encouraged the emergence of new industries.

The continent’s mining industry could not but be affected by these changes, and the decline of the coal mining industry was one manifestation of this. Indeed, like the US, European production of metals and minerals as a percentage of world output has been sliding since peaking in 1860 at over 60%. During the 20th century the ...

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