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The History of Mining: The events, technology and people involved in the industry that forged the modern world

Book Description

THE INDUSTRY THAT FORGED THE MODERN WORLD Throughout history metals and raw materials have underpinned human activity. So it is that the industry responsible for extracting these materials from the ground - mining - has been ever present throughout the history of civilisation, from the ancient world of the Egyptians and Romans, to the industrial revolution and the British Empire, and through to the present day, with mining firms well represented on the world's most important stock indexes including the FTSE100. This book traces the history of mining from those early moments when man first started using tools to the present day where metals continue to underpin economic activity in the post industrial age. In doing so, the history of mining methods, important events, technological developments, the important firms and the sparkling personalities that built the industry are examined in detail. At every stage, as the history of mining is traced from 40,000BC to the present day, the level of detail increases in accordance with the greater social and industrial developments that have played out as time has progressed. This means that a particular focus is given to the period since the industrial revolution and especially the 20th century. A look is also taken into the future in an effort to chart the direction this great industry might take in years to come. Many books have been written about mining; the majority have focused on a particular metal, geographical area, mining event or mining personality, but 'The History of Mining' has a broader scope and covers all of these essential and fascinating areas in one definitive volume.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Publication details
  3. About the author
  4. Foreword
  5. Acknowledgements
  6. Preface
    1. A note on currencies and metals prices
  7. Introduction
  8. The Ancient World (from the beginning to 1066)
    1. 1. The Stone Age
      1. In the beginning
      2. Tools and weapons
      3. Mining
    2. 2. The Bronze Age
      1. Mining methods
      2. Extracting metal
    3. 3. The Iron Age
    4. 4. China
      1. Mining at Tonglushan
      2. Mining at other sites
    5. 5. Early Mining in India
    6. 6. Mining in Ancient Egypt
      1. Stone quarries
      2. Metals in the desert
      3. Mining for precious gold
    7. 7. The Eastern Mediterranean and the Near/Middle East
      1. Jordan
      2. Greece
      3. Asia Minor
      4. Persia, the Empire and Iran
    8. 8. The Roman Republic and Empire
      1. Rome’s Spanish mines
      2. Organisation of Roman mines
    9. 9. Great Britain
      1. Cornish tin
      2. Mining in Wales
      3. Coal mining
      4. Base metals
    10. 10. Central/Eastern Europe
      1. The eastern Alps
      2. Germany
      3. The Balkans
      4. Other mining regions
    11. 11. North America
    12. 12. South America
      1. Chile
      2. Peru
    13. 13. Africa
    14. 14. The Structure of Ownership and Operation
    15. 15. Conclusion
      1. A virtually unchanged industry
  9. The Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution (1066-1800)
    1. 1. Introduction
      1. Developments in mine finance
      2. Society and technology
    2. 2. Mining in Central Europe
      1. Silver
      2. Lead, tin and copper
      3. Development of mining techniques
    3. 3. Scandinavia
      1. Norway
      2. Sweden and Finland
    4. 4. France
      1. The Paris Basin
    5. 5. Great Britain
    6. 6. Spain
    7. 7. The Lure of Africa
    8. 8. The Opening up of North America
      1. The Spanish arrive
      2. New Mexico copper
      3. Searching for gold and finding base metals
      4. Iron ore
      5. Mining for lead
    9. 9. Gold, Silver and the Spanish Conquistadors
      1. Gold and silver; the downfall of Spain
      2. Mining methods
      3. Craftmanship
    10. 10. Chile
    11. 11. The East
      1. China
    12. 12. Diamond Mines in India and Brazil
      1. India
      2. Brazil
    13. 13. Conclusion
  10. The Industrial Revolution (1800-1900)
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Diamonds in South Africa
      1. Early tensions between British and Boers
      2. The Randlords
      3. Problems at the Kimberley diggings
      4. The Randlords pursue amalgamation
    3. 3. The Gold Rushes of the 19th Century
      1. California
      2. Other American gold rushes...
      3. …and silver too
      4. The Witwatersrand
      5. Western Australia
      6. The Klondike
    4. 4. Russia’s Gold
      1. Gold exploration success
      2. The Amur region
      3. The Lensky district
      4. After 1922
    5. 5. Spain - Europe’s mining leader
      1. Lead
      2. Copper
      3. Iron
    6. 6. The Emergence of Canada
      1. Early mineral discoveries
    7. 7. Latin America
      1. Disraeli, the speculator
      2. Mexico
      3. Colombia
      4. Brazil
      5. The Cornish influence
      6. Peru
      7. Chile
    8. 8. Copper and other mineral riches in the USA
      1. Technology drives the copper search
      2. Getting the first copper to eastern markets
      3. The great Anaconda
      4. South to Arizona
      5. The dream of diamonds
      6. Lead expansion
    9. 9. Mining in the East
      1. Japan as a mining nation
      2. Malayan tin
      3. Tin in Thailand and Indonesia
      4. Borneo diamonds
    10. 10. King Coal
      1. Coal in the UK
      2. French coal mining
      3. Belgium
      4. Germany
      5. The rest of Europe
      6. The United States
      7. South Africa
      8. Asia and the Far East
      9. Australia and New Zealand
    11. 11. Conclusion
  11. The Modern Age (from 1900)
    1. 1. Broken Hill and other Australian giants
      1. Broken Hill
      2. Mount Isa
      3. Olympic Dam
      4. Lesser lights
    2. 2. Canadian century
      1. The early decades of gold
      2. More than gold
      3. After the Second World War
      4. The crazy 90s – Lac de Gras to Bre-X
    3. 3. The Development of Mining Technology
      1. Edison’s magnetometer
      2. Geophysics
      3. Mapping
      4. Ore sorting
      5. Shaft sinking
      6. Mechanisation
      7. Mining machinery
    4. 4. Diamonds
      1. South West Africa
      2. Namaqualand opens up
      3. Offshore diamonds
      4. Diamonds in the Second World War and after
      5. The Age of De Beers
      6. Botswana
      7. De Beers reorganises
    5. 5. Copper in Central Africa
      1. Rhodes in central Africa
      2. Belgium versus Britain, with a little African help
      3. The importance of copper
      4. The development of Northern Rhodesia’s copperbelt
      5. Bancroft’s exploration programme
      6. The Nchanga discovery
      7. The British retreat begins
      8. Zambia nationalises the copper mines
      9. Zaire’s output collapses
    6. 6. Other nationalisations in the 1960s and before
      1. Bolivia
      2. Chile
      3. Peru
      4. Cuba
    7. 7. The Australian Nickel Boom
      1. A financial event
      2. Post-war exploration
      3. The Kambalda discoveries
      4. The rise of Poseidon
      5. Crazy Christmas 1969
      6. The boom begins to ebb
      7. A modest mining event
    8. 8. The Mining Promoters
    9. 9. Gold Comes To The Fore Again
      1. Gold and inflation
      2. South Africa
      3. Gold elsewhere in Africa
      4. Rise of the open pit
      5. The Australian revival
      6. New Zealand
      7. Gold rushes today
      8. The new world gold giants
    10. 10. Platinum
      1. How platinum’s role and understanding of the metal has changed
      2. A metal of the 20th century and beyond
      3. Rustenburg Platinum
      4. Other producers emerge
    11. 11. Iron Ore
      1. Australia
      2. Brazil
      3. Iron ore in the East
      4. The growing African industry
      5. Europe’s coal and steel community
    12. 12. Chile: King of Copper
      1. American involvement
      2. Potrerillos
      3. Chuquicamata
      4. Andina
      5. Return of private capital
    13. 13. The Rise of Uranium
      1. The beginning
      2. Canada and Australia
      3. The rise of Kazakhstan
      4. World production figures
      5. The future of uranium
      6. Environmental heat
    14. 14. Coal in the Western Economies
      1. The US
      2. Great Britain
      3. South Africa
      4. India
    15. 15. China
      1. The foreign influence
      2. Coal
      3. Mining today
    16. 16. The Soviet Union
      1. Foreign participation as the new century dawns
      2. The rise of the Gulags
      3. Norilsk
      4. The search for indigenous diamonds
      5. The growing gold industry
    17. 17. The Mighty USA
      1. Aluminium
      2. Gold
      3. Iron ore
      4. Copper
    18. 18. European Mining
      1. Poland
      2. Spain
      3. Ireland
      4. Other parts of Europe
    19. 19. London Rises from the Ashes
      1. The old ‘colonial’ companies leave
      2. The end of exchange controls
      3. The giants gather and head for the Footsie
      4. The losers
    20. 20. The Environment
      1. Aberfan
      2. Low-grade mines lead to high volume waste
      3. Disasters
      4. Pollution
    21. 21. Mining and Labour
      1. The first formal miners’ strike
      2. Individualism and solidarity
      3. The entrepreneurial tradition of prospecting
      4. Camaraderie of danger
      5. Loyalty has limits
      6. The miner begins to prosper
    22. 22. Mining and the Media
      1. The mining press
      2. The internet
      3. Mining literature and film
      4. Conclusion
  12. The Future for Mining
  13. Appendix
    1. Mining and Minerals Timeline
    2. Glossary
    3. Bibliography
      1. The Ancient World
      2. The Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution
      3. The Industrial Revolution
      4. The Modern Age