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The Handbook of Global Science, Technology, and Innovation by Andrea Filippetti, Daniele Archibugi

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Chapter 18The Role of Global Connectedness in the Development of Indigenous Science in Middle-Income Countries

Helena Barnard, Robin Cowan, Marta Fernandez de Arroyabe Arranz, and Moritz Müller

Introduction1

The study of globalization and internationalization is expanding beyond the traditional fields of economics and politics; literature on higher education and science describes the internationalization of universities and the creation of knowledge across borders (Altbach and Knight 2007), which suggests that science should be viewed as a global system. Derived from this internationalization, we observe an increasing international mobility of academics and scientist, resulting in the creation of numerous connections among different science centers and universities across the globe. This global science system comprises not only advanced economies but also academic systems from less developed countries (Altbach, Reisberg, and Rumbley 2009). But the way in which less developed countries are connected to this global system is not fully understood and needs further research.

There is extensive evidence that global connectedness matters, not only for the leading technological and economic powers, but also – and perhaps especially – for countries from behind the technology frontier (Fagerberg and Godinho 2005). Global connections provide access to technologies and know-how from a different context, and so generally accelerate technological and ultimately economic growth (Kemeny 2010). ...

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