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The Handbook of Global Science, Technology, and Innovation by Andrea Filippetti, Daniele Archibugi

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Chapter 16Global Science Collaboration

Stefan Hennemann and Ingo Liefner

Introduction: The Organization of Science Collaboration

The internationalization or globalization of scientific collaboration is both a key feature of today’s science and a political mandate. Several mechanisms are contributing to the internationalization of science. First, some of the most important institutions and frameworks for conducting science have become increasingly global. An obvious one is the use of English as the global science language in publications, conferences, and communication (Ammon 2001). Closely related to this is the use of peer reviews for assessing the quality of publications, grant proposals, and concepts (Smith 2006). Second, international collaboration means accessing and combining the scientific resources, ideas, and competencies available worldwide. This can raise the quality not only of research, but also of education, and may accelerate discovery processes (Carlsson 2006; de Wit 2002; Kafouros et al. 2008). During recent decades, reductions in travel and communication costs as well as advances in communication tools, including the Internet and social media, have made internationalization possible and helped these forces to shape the organization of science. Politicians and managers in higher education and science, however, have responded to these changes, putting internationalization high on their agendas. One example is the demand for international collaboration in research ...

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