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The Handbook of Global Science, Technology, and Innovation

Book Description

This unique Handbook provides an in-depth overview of the themes and direction of science, technology, innovation, and public policy in an increasingly globalized world. Leading authorities discuss current debates, research issues, and prospects, and present a foundation for the development of global policy.

  • Presents a state-of-the-art overview of science, technology, and innovation in the context of globalization and global policy
  • Offers an accessible introduction for students, researchers, and policy makers in the fields of economics, sociology, political science, business studies, global studies, and international relations
  • Addresses emerging issues and provides clear policy implications and analysis in each chapter
  • Includes crucial coverage of the activities of established and emerging geographical areas
  • Explores the ways in which reforms in intellectual property rights and world trade have been affected by the increasingly international flows of knowledge, technology, and innovation
  • Examines major policy trends, including a significant shift toward private scientific research, and a heightened awareness amongst policy-makers of the economic and technological impact of scientific activity

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Notes on Contributors
  4. Introduction: Editors’ Introduction: Science, Technology, and Innovation Go Global
    1. An Overview of the Book
    2. Efforts and Ambitions
    3. Acknowledgements
    4. References
  5. Part I: Global Trends
    1. Chapter 1: The Convergence Paradox: The Global Evolution of National Innovation Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. Literature and Conceptual Framework
      3. Data, Indicators and Descriptive Evidence
      4. Empirical Analysis
      5. Conclusions
      6. References
    2. Chapter 2: World Top University Rankings: From Distribution to Implications on National Knowledge Creation and Competitiveness
      1. Introduction
      2. Research and Innovations in Universities
      3. International Comparison of Academic Research Output
      4. Discussions and Conclusions
      5. References
    3. Chapter 3: The International Race of Top Supercomputers and Its Implications
      1. Introduction
      2. Measure of Supercomputer Capacity
      3. World Distribution of Supercomputer Capacity
      4. High-Tech Output and Supercomputing Capacity
      5. A New Arms Race?
      6. Concluding Remarks
      7. References
    4. Chapter 4: Soft Innovation and Changes in Product Aesthetics: An Omitted Dimension in Economic Analyses of Innovation Activities
      1. Introduction
      2. Production of Innovations
      3. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
      4. Macroeconomic Indicators of Soft Innovation
      5. Microeconomic Indicators of Soft Innovation
      6. Policy Issues
      7. Conclusions and Implications
      8. References
    5. Chapter 5: Is the World of Science Moving to the East? What Bibliometrics Says
      1. Investment in Research and Development
      2. Leading Players in Science Publication
      3. Leading Players in International Collaboration
      4. Conclusions and Discussion
      5. References
  6. Part II: The Globalization of Technology and Innovation
    1. Chapter 6: Innovation, Internationalization, and the Transnational Corporation
      1. Introduction
      2. Innovation and the Transnational Corporations
      3. Transnationality and Innovation
      4. International Trade and Innovation
      5. From Micro to Aggregate Effects
      6. Summary and Conclusions
      7. References
    2. Chapter 7: International R&D Alliances by Firms: Origins and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. Defining Strategic Technology Partnering (STP)
      3. Theoretical Perspectives to Explain Growth of STP
      4. Relating STP to Internationalization
      5. The Challenges of STP
      6. Policy Issues Associated with STP
      7. References
    3. Chapter 8: The Globalization of Knowledge-Intensive Services
      1. Introduction
      2. Liberalization and International “Trade” in Services
      3. “Barriers” to Internationalization of Services
      4. Services Multinationals
      5. The Role of Services in Globalization and the International Division of Labor
      6. Knowledge Intensity
      7. What Are Knowledge-Intensive Business Services?
      8. Issues Affecting the Internationalization of KIBS
      9. Outsourcing and Offshoring of KIBS
      10. Conclusions
      11. References
    4. Chapter 9: Capital and Technology Flows: Changing Technology Acquisition Strategies in Developing Countries
      1. Traditional Modes of Technology Acquisition in Developing Countries
      2. Limitations of Technology Acquisition Through Licensing and FDI
      3. Changes in Modes of Technology Acquisition in the 1990s
      4. Impact of Globalization on Technology Acquisition Strategies
      5. Summary and Policy Implications
      6. References
    5. Chapter 10: Clusters and Global Innovation: The Role of Connectedness and Connectivity
      1. Introduction
      2. Global Connections: Connectedness and Connectivity
      3. The Decision-Making Locus within Connections: Personal Relationships vs. Organizational Pipelines
      4. The Network Structure of Connections: Centralized vs. Decentralized
      5. Global Connectivity: Archetypes and Examples
      6. The Decision-Making Locus within Connections and Innovation: Emergent vs. Strategic
      7. The Network Structure of Connections and Innovation: Appropriation vs. Participation
      8. Connectivity and Innovation: Breadth, Depth, and Spillovers
      9. Concluding Remarks
      10. References
    6. Chapter 11: New Product Development in Emerging Economies: Innovation in Reverse from China
      1. Introduction
      2. Literature Review
      3. Empirical Base
      4. Discussion
      5. Implications and Future Research
      6. References
    7. Chapter 12: Crowdfunding: Toward the Democratization of Innovation Financing
      1. Introduction
      2. What is Crowdfunding?
      3. Crowdfunding Numbers at a Glance
      4. The Advantages of Crowdfunding
      5. The Early Evidence on Crowdfunding
      6. Policy Implications
      7. The Future of Crowdfunding
      8. References
  7. Part III: Spaces and Flows of Knowledge
    1. Chapter 13: Harnessing the Geography of Innovation: Toward Evidence-Based Economic Development Policy
      1. Introduction
      2. Geography as a Platform to Organize Innovative Activity
      3. Harnessing the Natural Tendency of Innovative Clustering
      4. Evaluation Challenges for Economic Development Policies and Projects
      5. A New Definition of Economic Development
      6. Cluster Genesis
      7. Reconsidering the Role of Government in Economic Development
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
    2. Chapter 14: Multinational Enterprises Innovation Networks and the Role of Cities
      1. Introduction
      2. Classical MNE Theories: Hymer and Vernon on Organizational and Urban Structures
      3. The New Context: A Fast-Changing World and the Evolving MNE
      4. Innovation, Spillovers and Spatial Typologies
      5. MNEs and Cities in the World
      6. Concluding Remarks
      7. References
    3. Chapter 15: The Rise of the Global Creative Class
      1. Introduction
      2. Methodology, Data, and Variables
      3. The Global Creative Class
      4. Creativity and National Economic Performance
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    4. Chapter 16: Global Science Collaboration
      1. Introduction: The Organization of Science Collaboration
      2. How Researchers Connect Given a Set of Potential Partners at Various Distances
      3. Explanatory Factors: Institutions, Network Dynamics and Attributes of Knowledge
      4. Science Collaboration: Truly Global and Better?
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    5. Chapter 17: International Mobility of Scientists
      1. Introduction
      2. Definitional Challenges
      3. Conceptualising Mobility
      4. The Context of Mobility: Drivers, Impacts and Barriers
      5. Measuring Mobility
      6. Levels of Scientific Mobility
      7. Push and Pull Factors
      8. Impacts of Mobility
      9. The Construction of Mobility as a Policy Issue
      10. Conclusions
      11. References
    6. Chapter 18: The Role of Global Connectedness in the Development of Indigenous Science in Middle-Income Countries
      1. Introduction
      2. Understanding Global Connectedness in Science
      3. International Knowledge Flows and South African Science
      4. The Role of Foreign PhDs in the South African Science System
      5. Discussion
      6. References
    7. Chapter 19: Global Trends in Brain Drain and Likely Scenario in the Coming Years
      1. Introduction
      2. Brain Drain: Migration Patterns of the Highly Educated
      3. Recent Trends
      4. Austerity and Brain Drain in the EU
      5. Conclusions
      6. References
  8. Part IV: Global Institutions and Intellectual Property Rights
    1. Chapter 20: The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights
      1. Introduction
      2. What Are Intellectual Property Rights?
      3. The Rise of a Global IPR Regime
      4. Two Models on IPRs
      5. A Different View: How Powerful Are IPRs?
      6. Is a Global IPR Regime Possible?
      7. What Is the Future of IPRs in a Global Economy?
      8. References
    2. Chapter 21: Patents, Monopoly Power, and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals in Low-Income Nations
      1. Introduction
      2. Pricing New Drugs Under Monopoly Conditions
      3. The Extent of Differential Pricing
      4. Reasons for the Paucity of Differential Pricing
      5. The Ultimate Triumph of Differential Pricing
      6. Compulsory Patent Licensing
      7. Consequences for Research and Development
      8. References
    3. Chapter 22: Global Governance and Intangible Cultural Heritage in the Information Society: At the Crossroads of IPRs and Innovation
      1. Introduction
      2. Global Governance and the Excesses of Globalization: Preliminary Considerations
      3. Definitional Issues: Information Society, Culture, and Social Involvement
      4. Development of the Information Society
      5. IPRs and Intangible Cultural Heritage: Options for Protection and the Commodification of Intangible Cultural Property
      6. Tort of Cultural Misappropriation in the Context of the Information Society
      7. The Information Society Conundrum and the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage
      8. Concluding Remarks
      9. References
  9. Part V: The Global Governance of Science and Technology
    1. Chapter 23: Knowledge as Global Public Good
      1. Introduction
      2. What Is a Public Good?
      3. Is Knowledge a Public Good?
      4. Governments in the Generation and Distribution of Knowledge
      5. Intellectual Property Rights as a Tool for Exclusion
      6. Knowledge as a Global Public Good
      7. Vaccine Research as a Case of a Global Public Good Management
      8. The Governance of Knowledge as Global Public Good
      9. References
    2. Chapter 24: From Governmental Open Data Toward Governmental Open Innovation (GOI): A Global Perspective
      1. Introduction
      2. Governmental Open Innovation: “Openness” of Governments for Innovation
      3. The Emergence of Governmental Open Innovation: A Global Perspective
      4. Concluding Remarks
      5. References
    3. Chapter 25: Serendipity and Chance in Scientific Discovery: Policy Implications for Global Society
      1. Introduction
      2. Serendipity and Chance
      3. Implications of Serendipity and Chance for the Individual Researcher
      4. Policy Implications of Serendipity and Chance
      5. The Effects of Globalization on Research
      6. Conclusions
      7. References
    4. Chapter 26: Global Climate Change and the Direction of Technological Change
      1. Introduction
      2. The Oncoming Storm
      3. Getting Away from the Mouth of Hell
      4. Reflections on the Technologies Discussed
      5. The Role of Less Developed Countries in Carbon Reduction
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    5. Chapter 27: Global Risks: Cause and Consequence of the New Interactions Between Science, Technology, and Society
      1. Introduction: The “Anthropogenicity” of Global Social-Environmental Risks
      2. Ulrich Beck’s and Mary Douglas’s Understanding of Risks: A Critical Review
      3. Redefining Risks from an Epistemological Point of View
      4. Consequences of the Definition of Risk for Understanding the New Interactions Between Science, Technology, and Society
      5. Redefining Risks and Risk Society: Political Challenges of Risk Management
      6. References
    6. Chapter 28: Globalization, Regionalization, and Technological Change
      1. Introduction
      2. The “First Globalization” of the Nineteenth Century, and the Emergence of National Economies
      3. Global Liberalization and Regional Integration Today
      4. Regional Production
      5. Regional Economic Integration: Europe, China, and Others
      6. Will It Be Different This Time?
      7. References
  10. Index
  11. End User License Agreement