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The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, 2nd Edition

Book Description

**Honored as a 2013 Choice Outstanding Academic Title**

Comprising state-of-the-art research, this substantially expanded and revised Handbook discusses the latest global and interdisciplinary issues across bilingualism and multilingualism.

  • Includes the addition of ten new authors to the contributor team, and coverage of seven new topics ranging from global media to heritage language learning

  • Provides extensively revised coverage of bilingual and multilingual communities, polyglot aphasia, creolization, indigenization, linguistic ecology and endangered languages, multilingualism, and forensic linguistics

  • Brings together a global team of internationally-renowned researchers from different disciplines

  • Covers a wide variety of topics, ranging from neuro- and psycho-linguistic research to studies of media and psychological counseling

  • Assesses the latest issues in worldwide linguistics, including the phenomena and the conceptualization of 'hyperglobalization', and emphasizes geographical centers of global conflict and commerce

  • Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics
    3. Title page
    4. Copyright page
    5. Dedication
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. Contributors
    8. Introduction
    9. Part I: Overview and Foundations
      1. Introduction
      2. 1 Bilingualism and Multilingualism: Some Central Concepts
        1. Introduction
        2. A Multilingual World
        3. Classifying Multilingualism
        4. Dealing with Multilingual Realities
        5. The Definition and Measurement of Personal Fluencies
        6. The Bilingual or Multilingual Individual
        7. Perspectives on Theory and Practice
        8. Language and Identity
      3. 2 Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Bilingualism and Multilingualism Research
        1. The Fundamentals for Bilingualism and Multilingualism
        2. Research Traditions and Methodological Perspectives
        3. Towards a Transdisciplinarity: Challenges and Future Directions
    10. Part II: Neurological and Psychological Aspects of Bilingualism and Multilingualism
      1. Introduction
      2. The Neurology of Bilingualism and Multilingualism
        1. 3 Bilingual Aphasia: Theoretical and Clinical Considerations
          1. Introduction
          2. Issues in the Case Literature on Bilingual or Polyglot Aphasias
          3. Methodological Concerns in the Bilingual Aphasia Case Literature
          4. Models of Bilingual Processing that Address Bilingual Aphasia
          5. Conclusions
      3. Approaches to Bilingualism, Multilingualism, and Second-Language Acquisition
        1. 4 The Bilingual Child
          1. Introduction
          2. Speech Perception
          3. Speech Production
          4. Word Learning
          5. Morphology, Syntax, Language Differentiation, and Cross-Linguistic Influence
          6. Cognitive Correlates of Bilingualism
          7. More to Bilingual Acquisition: Similarities, Differences, Challenges, and Opportunities
        2. 5 Bilingualism/Multilingualism and Second-Language Acquisition
          1. Introduction
          2. Definitions of Bilinguals and Multilinguals
          3. The Complexity of Understanding Bilingualism and Multilingualism
          4. Conceptualizing and Assessing Language Proficiency
          5. Age and L2 Acquisition
          6. The Interaction between L1 and L2 (or Additional Nonnative Languages)
          7. Conclusion
        3. 6 Multilingualism: New Perspectives on Syntactic Development
          1. Introduction
          2. Key Issues in First- and Second-Language Acquisition
          3. Multilingual Acquisition
          4. Theoretical Background
          5. Background Studies
          6. Research Focus
          7. Enhancement Study
          8. Discussion
          9. Conclusions
        4. 7 Bilingualism and the Heritage Language Speaker
          1. Some Variables that Characterize Bilinguals
          2. Heritage Language Speakers
          3. Linguistic Competence in the Heritage Language
          4. From First and Primary Language to Secondary Language
          5. Is the Heritage Language Like a Second Language?
          6. Outstanding Issues
      4. Bilingual and Multilingual Language Use: Knowledge, Comprehension, and Production
        1. 8 Two Linguistic Systems in Contact: Grammar, Phonology, and Lexicon
          1. Introduction
          2. Morpho-syntax
          3. Phonology and Lexicon
          4. New Research Methodologies
          5. Concluding Remarks
        2. 9 The Comprehension of Words and Sentences in Two Languages
          1. The Comprehension of Words in Two Languages
          2. The Comprehension of Sentences in Two Languages
          3. Conclusions
        3. 10 An Appraisal of the Bilingual Language Production System: Quantitatively or Qualitatively Different from Monolinguals?
          1. Introduction
          2. Bilingual Production at the Pre-lexical Level
          3. Bilingual Production at the Lexical Level
          4. Post-lexical Processing
          5. Summary and Conclusions
      5. Bilingualism and Multilingualism: Memory, Cognition, and Emotion
        1. 11 Bilingual Memory
          1. Introduction
          2. Early Theoretical Formulations
          3. The Bilingual Coordinate–Compound Distinction
          4. One- vs. Two-Memory Systems
          5. The Processes View of Bilingual Memory
          6. The Bilingual Dual Coding Model
          7. Hierarchical Models of Bilingual Memory
          8. Bilingual Memory Representations at the Word-Type Level
          9. Bilingual Lexical Access
          10. Conclusions
        2. 12 Bilingualism and Emotion: Implications for Mental Health
          1. Introduction
          2. Bilingualism and Emotion: How Bilinguals Use Language to Express Their Emotions
          3. Bilingual Autobiographical Memory
          4. Code-Switching
          5. Therapy with Bilinguals: How Differences in Language Expression Affect Therapy
          6. Use of Interpreters
          7. Cultural Issues and Culture-specific Strategies in the Treatment of Bilinguals
          8. Conclusions and Directions for Future Research
      6. The Bilingual’s and Multilingual’s Repertoire: Code-Mixing, Code-Switching, and Communication Accommodation
        1. 13 Code-Switching and Grammatical Theory
          1. Early Research
          2. Constraints on Code-Switching, Constraints on Syntax
          3. The Emergence of Theoretical Approaches to Code-Switching
          4. A Minimalist Approach to Code-Switching
          5. Conclusions
        2. 14 Sign Language–Spoken Language Bilingualism and the Derivation of Bimodally Mixed Sentences
          1. Bimodal Bilingualism
          2. Availability and Employment of Bimodal Mixing Options
          3. A Minimalist Program of Inquiry into Language Mixing
          4. The Products of Bimodal Mixing
          5. Derivation of Bimodally Mixed Sentences
          6. Conclusion
        3. 15 Social and Psychological Factors in Language Mixing
          1. Introduction
          2. Four Questions
          3. Conclusions
        4. 16 Accommodating Multilinguality
          1. CAT: A Brief Overview of Some Basic Concepts and Processes
          2. A Social Psychologically-Oriented Model of Bilingual and Multilingual Accommodation
          3. Epilogue
        5. 17 Bilingualism and Gesture
          1. Introduction
          2. The Connection between Gestures, Speech, and Language
          3. Bilingual Children and Gestures
          4. Bilingual Adults and Gestures
          5. Bi-modal bilingualism
          6. Conclusions
    11. Part III: Societal Bilingualism/Multilingualism and its Effects
      1. Introduction
      2. Language Contact, Maintenance, and Endangerment
        1. 18 The Bilingual and Multilingual Community
          1. Introduction
          2. Types of bilingual and multilingual speech communities
          3. Diglossia and Domains of Language Use in Bilingual Communities
          4. The Changing Face of Multilingualism in the Modern World and the Decline of Small Speech Communities
          5. Public policy issues: language planning for multilingual speech communities
          6. Conclusion
        2. 19 Language Maintenance, Language Shift, and Reversing Language Shift
          1. Introduction: Perspective: American and International
          2. Language Shift as the Societal Norm
          3. Making the World Safe (or at Least Safer) for Cultural Democracy
          4. Can Language Shift Be Reversed?
          5. Concluding and Summary Observations
        3. 20 Linguistic Imperialism and Endangered Languages
          1. Introduction: Connecting Linguistic Imperialism with Endangered Languages
          2. The State of the World’s Endangered Languages
          3. Linguistic Imperialism Past and Present
          4. Diverse Approaches to Language Dominance: Methodological and Theoretical Challenges
          5. Encouraging Examples of Change that Strengthen Endangered Languages and Multilingualism
        4. 21 Multilingualism, Indigenization, and Creolization
          1. Indigenization
          2. Creolization
          3. Conclusion
        5. 22 Multilingualism and Family Welfare
          1. Introduction
          2. Factors that Affect Multilingual Family Well-Being
          3. Strategies for Promoting Multilingual Family Welfare
          4. Conclusion
      3. Bilingualism and Multilingualism: The Media, Education, Literacy, and the Law
        1. 23 Bilingualism and Multilingualism in the Global Media and Advertising
          1. Globalization and International Advertising: Key Issues
          2. Approaches to Advertising Discourse
          3. Typology of the Global Spread of English and Language-mixing
          4. Bilingualism through non-Roman scripts
          5. Multilingualism and Structural Domains
          6. Globalization and the Marketization of English
          7. English and the Mystique Factor
          8. Language Change: The Interaction of Outer and Expanding Circles
          9. Linguistic Accommodation and Advertiser’s Perception
          10. Conclusion
        2. 24 Bilingual Education
          1. Brief History of Bilingual Education
          2. Overview of Bilingual Education Research
          3. Methodological and Theoretical Issues
          4. Problem Areas
          5. Directions for Future Work
        3. 25 The Impact of Bilingualism on Language and Literacy Development
          1. Metalinguistic Concepts
          2. Literacy
          3. The Bilingual Connection
        4. 26 Bilingualism and Writing Systems
          1. Basic Concepts and Terminology
          2. Reading and Writing More Than One Writing System
          3. Beyond Cross-Orthographic Effects: How Biliterates Differ from Monoliterates
          4. Writing Systems and Metalinguistic Awareness in Bilinguals
          5. Conclusion
          6. Nonlinguistic Cognitive Consequences of Biliteracy
          7. Conclusions
        5. 27 Multilingualism and Forensic Linguistics
          1. Introduction
          2. Bilingualism/Multilingualism and Forensic Linguistics: Definition and Scope
          3. Language Knowledge and Use: Tapping Unconscious and Conscious Dimensions
          4. Methodology
          5. The Nature of Evidence: DNA and Fingerprints vs. Linguistic Fingerprints
          6. The Bi-/Multilingual Mind and Language Use: Psycholinguistic Perspectives
          7. Conclusion
    12. Part IV: Global Perspectives and Challenges: Case Studies
      1. Introduction
      2. 28 Bilingualism and Multilingualism in North America
        1. Introduction
        2. Borderlands of Language and Nationality
        3. Bilinguals and their Communities
        4. The Future of American Plurilingualism
        5. Research on North American Bilingualism
      3. 29 Bilingualism in Latin America
        1. Introduction
        2. Sociolinguistic Characteristics
        3. Bilingualism
      4. 30 Bilingualism in Europe
        1. Introduction
        2. Europe, a Continent of Sustained Migrations
        3. Europe, a Continent of Linguistically Powerful States and Less Powerful Minorities
        4. Recent Trends in Education and Communication in Europe
        5. General Conclusions and Open Questions
      5. 31 Turkish as an Immigrant Language in Europe
        1. History and Current Situation
        2. Language Choice, Maintenance and Shift
        3. Acquisition
        4. Code-Switching
        5. Language Change
        6. Conclusion
      6. 32 Multilingualism in Southern Africa
        1. Introduction
        2. Multilingualism, Language Status, and Language Use
        3. Multilingualism and Language Policy
        4. Multilingualism and Language Practice in Post-Apartheid South Africa
        5. Multilingualism and the Indices of Language Policy Failure in South Africa
        6. Multilingualism and Consequences of Language Policy Failure in South Africa
        7. Multilingualism, Language Policy Failure, and Language Shift
        8. Conclusion
      7. 33 Multilingualism in Greater China and the Chinese Language Diaspora
        1. Introduction
        2. China
        3. Hong Kong
        4. Macao
        5. Taiwan
        6. The Chinese Language Diaspora
        7. Conclusion
      8. 34 Bilingualism and Multilingualism in South Asia
        1. Introduction
        2. A Linguistic Profile of South Asia
        3. Sources and Processes of Multilingualism
        4. Salient Features of SA Multilingualism
        5. Conclusion
      9. 35 Multilingualism and Language Renewal in Ex-Soviet Central Asia
        1. Introduction
        2. Territory, Ethnos, and the Sociolinguistic Setting
        3. Languages and Language Status
        4. Language Promotion in the Wake of the 1989–1990 Language Laws
        5. New Patterns of Language Behavior
        6. Concluding Remarks: A New Linguistic Era
      10. 36 Bilingualism/Multilingualism in the Middle East and North Africa: A Focus on Cross-National and Diglossic Bilingualism/Multilingualism
        1. Introduction
        2. Bilingualism and Multilingualism in the MENA
        3. Summary and Conclusion
    13. Index